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Molecules 2015, 20(1), 169-184; doi:10.3390/molecules20010169

Steric Stabilization of “Charge-Free” Cellulose Nanowhiskers by Grafting of Poly(ethylene glycol)

1
Faculty of Textile Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture 386-8567, Japan
2
Division of Biological and Medical Fibers, Institute for Fiber Engineering (IFES), Interdisciplinary Cluster for Cutting Edge Research (ICCER), Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture, 386-8567, Japan
3
Graduate School of Science and Technology, Shinshu University, Tokida 3-15-1, Ueda, Nagano Prefecture, 386-8567, Japan
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Derek J. McPhee
Received: 26 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Trends in Cellulose and Chitin Chemistry)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [4376 KB, uploaded 24 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

A sterically stabilized aqueous suspension of “charge-free” cellulose nanowhiskers was prepared by hydrochloric acid hydrolysis of cotton powders and subsequent surface grafting of monomethoxy poly(ethylene glycol) (mPEG). The preparation scheme included carboxylation of the terminal hydroxyl groups in mPEG via oxidation with silica gel particles carrying 2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-1-pyperidinyloxyl (TEMPO) moieties and subsequent esterification between terminal carboxyls in mPEG and surface hydroxyl groups of cellulose nanowhiskers, mediated by 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI) in dimethyl sulfoxide or dimethylacetamide. Some of the prepared PEG-grafted samples showed remarkable flow birefringence and enhanced stability after 24 h, even in 0.1 M NaCl, suggesting successful steric stabilization by efficient mPEG grafting. Actual PEG grafting via ester linkages was confirmed by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectrometry. In a typical example, the amount of grafted mPEG was estimated as ca. 0.3 g/g cellulose by two measurements, i.e., weight increase after grafting and weight loss after alkali cleavage of ester linkages. Transmission electron microscopy indicated unchanged nanowhisker morphology after mPEG grafting. View Full-Text
Keywords: steric stabilization; cellulose nanowhiskers; poly(ethylene glycol); 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI); dispersion stability steric stabilization; cellulose nanowhiskers; poly(ethylene glycol); 1,1'-carbonyldiimidazole (CDI); dispersion stability
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Araki, J.; Mishima, S. Steric Stabilization of “Charge-Free” Cellulose Nanowhiskers by Grafting of Poly(ethylene glycol). Molecules 2015, 20, 169-184.

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