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Molecules 2014, 19(6), 7341-7355; doi:10.3390/molecules19067341
Article

Fabrication of Implantable, Enzyme-Immobilized Glutamate Sensors for the Monitoring of Glutamate Concentration Changes in Vitro and in Vivo

1,* , 2,*  and 1
Received: 17 March 2014 / Revised: 30 May 2014 / Accepted: 3 June 2014 / Published: 5 June 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Enzyme Immobilization)
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Abstract

Glutamate sensors based on the immobilization of glutamate oxidase (GlutOx) were prepared by adsorption on electrodeposited chitosan (Method 1) and by crosslinking with glutaraldehyde (Method 2) on micromachined platinum microelectrodes. It was observed that glutamate sensors prepared by Method 1 have faster response time (<2 s) and lower detection limit (2.5 ± 1.1 μM) compared to that prepared by Method 2 (response time: <5 sec and detection limit: 6.5 ± 1.7 μM); glutamate sensors prepared by Method 2 have a larger linear detection range (20–352 μM) and higher sensitivity (86.8 ± 8.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 12) compared to those prepared by Method 1 (linear detection range: 20–217 μM and sensitivity: 34.9 ± 4.8 nA·μM−1·cm−2, N = 8). The applicability of the glutamate sensors in vivo was also demonstrated. The glutamate sensors were implanted into the rat brain to monitor the stress-induced extracellular glutamate release in the hypothalamus of the awake, freely moving rat.
Keywords: glutamate oxidase; chitosan; glutaraldehyde; glutamate; enzyme immobilization; microelectrode; micromachining; rat; hypothalamus glutamate oxidase; chitosan; glutaraldehyde; glutamate; enzyme immobilization; microelectrode; micromachining; rat; hypothalamus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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Tseng, T.T.-C.; Chang, C.-F.; Chan, W.-C. Fabrication of Implantable, Enzyme-Immobilized Glutamate Sensors for the Monitoring of Glutamate Concentration Changes in Vitro and in Vivo. Molecules 2014, 19, 7341-7355.

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