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Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18317-18331; doi:10.3390/molecules191118317

In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao

1
Department of Biomedical Science, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Division of Biotechnology, Centre for Cocoa Biotechnology Research, Malaysian Cocoa Board, Commercial Zone 1, North KKIP, Norowot Road, 88460 Kota Kinabalu Industrial Park, Sabah, Malaysia
3
Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University Putra Malaysia, 43400 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 10 September 2014 / Revised: 16 October 2014 / Accepted: 17 October 2014 / Published: 10 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Abstract

The aims of this study were to determine the antioxidant and antiproliferative activity of the following Theobroma cacao plant part methanolic extracts: leaf, bark, husk, fermented and unfermented shell, pith, root, and cherelle. Antioxidant activity was determined using 2,2-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH), thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS), and Folin-Ciocalteu assays; the 3-[4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl]-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium (MTT) assay was used to determine antiproliferative activity. The root extract had the highest antioxidant activity; its median effective dose (EC50) was 358.3 ± 7.0 µg/mL and total phenolic content was 22.0 ± 1.1 g GAE/100 g extract as compared to the other methanolic plant part extracts. Only the cherelle extract demonstrated 10.4% ± 1.1% inhibition activity in the lipid peroxidation assay. The MTT assay revealed that the leaf extract had the highest antiproliferative activity against MCF-7 cells [median inhibitory concentration (IC50) = 41.4 ± 3.3 µg/mL]. Given the overall high IC50 for the normal liver cell line WRL-68, this study indicates that T. cacao methanolic extracts have a cytotoxic effect in cancer cells, but not in normal cells. Planned future investigations will involve the purification, identification, determination of the mechanisms of action, and molecular assay of T. cacao plant extracts. View Full-Text
Keywords: Theobroma cacao; plant; antiproliferative; antioxidant; phenolics; natural product Theobroma cacao; plant; antiproliferative; antioxidant; phenolics; natural product
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Baharum, Z.; Akim, A.M.; Taufiq-Yap, Y.H.; Hamid, R.A.; Kasran, R. In Vitro Antioxidant and Antiproliferative Activities of Methanolic Plant Part Extracts of Theobroma cacao. Molecules 2014, 19, 18317-18331.

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