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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 11 (November 2014), Pages 17066-19252

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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19243-19252; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119243
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated
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In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-yl-acetate (1), and seven known compounds: uracil (2), cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Tyr) (3), cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Val) (4), 2(2-aminophenyl)acetic acid (5), 2(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (6), 4-hydroxy- benzamide (7) and 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (8). All of the compound structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. The antifungal and AChE inhibitory activities of compounds 18 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 exhibited promising activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum that was comparable to that of the positive control nystatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19220-19242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119220
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and
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The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule Compounds with Selective Cytotoxicity for Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells Using 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19209-19219; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119209
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
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Abstract
We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that
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We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that one compound has better growth inhibition and improved selectivity towards Burkitt’s lymphoma cells than the query compound. However, initial mechanism-of-action studies show a different target profile in comparison with the previous hit compound, which does not involve the inhibition of the proteasome or the NFκB pathway. The data from this study provide a solid basis for further efforts in the search for selective agents against Burkitt’s lymphoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Property of Coffee Components: Assessment of Methods that Define Mechanisms of Action
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19180-19208; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119180
Received: 6 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 54 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Brewed coffee is
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Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Brewed coffee is a complex food matrix with numerous phytochemical components that have antioxidant activity capable of scavenging free radicals, donating hydrogen and electrons, providing reducing activity and also acting as metal ion pro-oxidant chelators. More recent studies have shown that coffee components can trigger tissue antioxidant gene expression and protect against gastrointestinal oxidative stress. This paper will describe different in vitro, cell-free and cell-based assays that both characterize and compare the antioxidant capacity and mechanism of action of coffee and its bioactive constituents. Moreover, evidence of cellular antioxidant activity and correlated specific genomic events induced by coffee components, which are relevant to antioxidant function in both animal and human studies, will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Cholinesterase Activity of Lycopodium Alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19172-19179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119172
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa.
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A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa. Among them, lycosquarosine A (1) is the new metabolite of the natural source. Lycosquarosine A completely inhibited AChE activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 54.3 μg/mL, while acetylaposerratinine (2) showed stronger inhibitory activity than 1 with an IC50 value of 15.2 µg/mL. This result indicates that these alkaloids may be a potent source of AChE inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Spectral and Kinetic Properties of Radicals Derived from Oxidation of Quinoxalin-2-One and Its Methyl Derivative
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19152-19171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119152
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The kinetics and spectral characteristics of the transients formed in the reactions of OH and N3 with quinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q), its methyl derivative, 3-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (3-MeQ) and pyrazin-2-one (Pyr) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions at
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The kinetics and spectral characteristics of the transients formed in the reactions of OH and N3 with quinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q), its methyl derivative, 3-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (3-MeQ) and pyrazin-2-one (Pyr) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions at pH 7. The transient absorption spectra recorded in the reactions of OH with Q and 3-MeQ consisted of an absorption band with λmax = 470 nm assigned to the OH-adducts on the benzene ring, and a second band with λmax = 390 nm (for Q) and 370 nm (for 3-MeQ) assigned, inter alia, to the N-centered radicals on a pyrazin-2-one ring. The rate constants of the reactions of OH with Q and 3-MeQ were found to be in the interval (5.9–9.7) × 109 M–1·s–1 and were assigned to their addition to benzene and pyrazin-2-one rings and H-abstraction from the pyrazin-2-one nitrogen. In turn, the transient absorption spectrum observed in the reaction of N3 exhibits an absorption band with λmax = 350 nm. This absorption was assigned to the N-centered radical on the Pyr ring formed after deprotonation of the respective radical cation resulting from one-electron oxidation of 3-MeQ. The rate constant of the reaction of N3 with 3 MeQ was found to be (6.0 ± 0.5) × 109 M–1·s–1. Oxidation of 3-MeQ by N3 and Pyr by OH and N3 confirms earlier spectral assignments. With the rate constant of the OH radical with Pyr (k = 9.2 ± 0.2) × 109 M–1·s‒1, a primary distribution of the OH attack was estimated nearly equal between benzene and pyrazin-2-one rings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessReview Synthetic Applications of Intramolecular Thiol-Ene “Click” Reactions
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19137-19151; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119137
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intermolecular thiol-ene reaction is emerging as a highly efficient; free-radical mediated “click” process with diverse applications in biofunctionalisation and materials science. The related intramolecular thiol-ene reactions offer significant potential for the preparation of a wide range of sulphur containing heterocycles including synthetic
[...] Read more.
The intermolecular thiol-ene reaction is emerging as a highly efficient; free-radical mediated “click” process with diverse applications in biofunctionalisation and materials science. The related intramolecular thiol-ene reactions offer significant potential for the preparation of a wide range of sulphur containing heterocycles including synthetic therapeutics such as cyclic peptides and thiosugars. Herein, we review recent advances in intramolecular thiyl-radical mediated reactions and their applications for synthetic and medicinal chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessArticle Vernonia kotschyana Roots: Therapeutic Potential via Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19114-19136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119114
Received: 10 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts
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The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19097-19113; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119097
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on
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The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Anthocyanins of the Fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19078-19096; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119078
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified
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In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19066-19077; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119066
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 23 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed
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BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Pleuromutilin Derivatives as Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19050-19065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119050
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several pleuromutilin derivatives possessing thiadiazole moieties were synthesized via acylation reactions under mild conditions. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the derivatives against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and B. cereus
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Several pleuromutilin derivatives possessing thiadiazole moieties were synthesized via acylation reactions under mild conditions. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the derivatives against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and B. cereus were tested by the agar dilution method and Oxford cup assay. All the screened compounds displayed potent activity. Compound 6d was the most active antibacterial agent because of its lowest MIC value and largest inhibition zone. Docking experiments were performed to understand the possible mode of the interactions between the derivatives and 50S ribosomal subunit. Moreover, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties of the synthesized compounds were analyzed after prediction using the Advanced Chemistry Development/Percepta Platform available online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Mechanism of Rutin on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Cell Proliferation
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19036-19049; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119036
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 15 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study,
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we proposed that rutin attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation by scavenging ROS. Immunofluorescence data showed that rutin decreased the production of ROS, which was mainly generated through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Western blot results provided further evidence on rutin increasing expression of Nox4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Moreover, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that proliferation of PASMCs triggered by hypoxia was also repressed by rutin. However, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS, abolished or diminished the capability of rutin in repressing hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. These data suggest that rutin shows a potential benefit against the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting ROS, subsequently preventing hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Artemisinin-Indoloquinoline Hybrids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19021-19035; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119021
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in
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A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in vitro were tested. Nearly all of the tested compounds (79, except for compounds 7d and 7e against HCT-116) showed an increased antitumor activity against HCT-116 and A549 cell lines when compared to the dihydroartemisinin control. Especially for the artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrid 8, with an 11-aminopropylamino-10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline substituent, the antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line had improved more than ten times. The IC50 value of hybrid 8 against A549 cell lines was decreased to 1.328 ± 0.586 μM, while dihydroartemisin showed IC50 value of >20 µM in the same cell line. Thus, these results have proven that the strategy of introducing a planar basic fused aromatic moiety, such as the indoloquinoline skeleton, could improve the antiproliferative activity and selectivity towards cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Gunnii Hook. As a Novel Source of Antioxidant, Antimutagenic and Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19007-19020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119007
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and
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The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and α-pinene (14.12%) were the major compounds comprising almost 82% of total EO. EO exhibited moderate DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, with IC50 value of 7.19 µL/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against the spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli IC202 oxyR mutant strain, deficient in removing radical oxygen species (ROS). Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in the presence of E. gunnii EO was only slight, up to 12% at the highest concentration tested. However, when the oxidative mutagen was used, EO displayed more significant reduction of mutagenesis (maximum 23%) in a concentration dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was tested against the selected strains from ATTC and NCIB collections: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the two Escherichia coli strains from our laboratory collection (SY252 and IB112) using both the disk-diffusion and MIC assays. The greatest sensitivity was shown by M. flavus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli lpcA (MIC = 0.83 mg/mL), while the highest resistance was shown by E. coli (ATTC 25922) and S. epidermidis. This study represents the first report on chemical composition and biological activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii in the South Balkan region and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
Open AccessArticle Study on the Cytotoxic Activity of Drimane Sesquiterpenes and Nordrimane Compounds against Cancer Cell Lines
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18993-19006; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118993
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 27 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (874 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Twelve drimanes, including polygodial (1), isopolygodial (2), drimenol (3), confertifolin (4), and isodrimenin (5), were obtained from natural sources. Semi-synthetic derivatives 612 were obtained from 1 and 2, and cytotoxic
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Twelve drimanes, including polygodial (1), isopolygodial (2), drimenol (3), confertifolin (4), and isodrimenin (5), were obtained from natural sources. Semi-synthetic derivatives 612 were obtained from 1 and 2, and cytotoxic activity was evaluated in vitro against cancer cell lines (HT-29, MDA-MB231, DHF, MCF-7, PC-3, DU-145, and CoN). IC50 values were determined at concentrations of 12.5–100 µM of each compound for 72 h. In addition, it was found that polygodial (1), 8, and 12 induced changes in mitochondrial membrane permeability in CoN, MCF-7, and PC-3 cells. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Classification of Frankfurters by FT-Raman Spectroscopy and Chemometric Methods
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18980-18992; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118980
Received: 29 July 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 21 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Frankfurters are widely consumed all over the world, and the production requires a wide range of meat and non-meat ingredients. Due to these characteristics, frankfurters are products that can be easily adulterated with lower value meats, and the presence of undeclared species. Adulterations
[...] Read more.
Frankfurters are widely consumed all over the world, and the production requires a wide range of meat and non-meat ingredients. Due to these characteristics, frankfurters are products that can be easily adulterated with lower value meats, and the presence of undeclared species. Adulterations are often still difficult to detect, due the fact that the adulterant components are usually very similar to the authentic product. In this work, FT-Raman spectroscopy was employed as a rapid technique for assessing the quality of frankfurters. Based on information provided by the Raman spectra, a multivariate classification model was developed to identify the frankfurter type. The aim was to study three types of frankfurters (chicken, turkey and mixed meat) according to their Raman spectra, based on the fatty vibrational bands. Classification model was built using partial least square discriminant analysis (PLS-DA) and the performance model was evaluated in terms of sensitivity, specificity, accuracy, efficiency and Matthews’s correlation coefficient. The PLS-DA models give sensitivity and specificity values on the test set in the ranges of 88%–100%, showing good performance of the classification models. The work shows the Raman spectroscopy with chemometric tools can be used as an analytical tool in quality control of frankfurters. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances of Vibrational Spectroscopic Technologies in Life Sciences)
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Open AccessArticle The Diterpenes Ovoideal A–G from Tirpitzia ovoidea
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18966-18979; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118966
Received: 23 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (399 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Seven new diterpenes, named ovoideal A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6) and G (7), have been isolated along with eleven known diterpenes 8
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Seven new diterpenes, named ovoideal A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6) and G (7), have been isolated along with eleven known diterpenes 818 from the petroleum ether soluble fraction of an ethanol extract of the aerial parts of Tirpitzia ovoidea. The structures of the new compounds were elucidated primarily by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy, as well as by the HR-ESI-MS spectrometry. All compounds were isolated from the Linaceae family for the first time. The in vitro cytotoxic activity of compounds 1, 35, 818 was evaluated against the Hela, HepG2 and K562 cell lines. Among them, compounds 3, 9, 11, 12, 13, 14, 15, 17, 18 showed moderate inhibitory activities. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle TOMBU and COMBU as Novel Uronium-Type Peptide Coupling Reagents Derived from Oxyma-B
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18953-18965; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118953
Received: 19 October 2014 / Revised: 19 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (256 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Here we describe two novel uronium salts, TOMBU and COMBU, derived from the recently described Oxyma-B for use in peptide bond synthesis. These coupling reagents are more stable than COMU in DMF. Furthermore, using various peptide synthetic models in solution and solid-phase synthesis,
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Here we describe two novel uronium salts, TOMBU and COMBU, derived from the recently described Oxyma-B for use in peptide bond synthesis. These coupling reagents are more stable than COMU in DMF. Furthermore, using various peptide synthetic models in solution and solid-phase synthesis, we reveal that they show better performance than HBTU in terms of preserving chiral integrity and coupling yields, but slightly worse performance than COMU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitory Constituents of Propolis: Kinetics and Mechanism of Inhibition of Recombinant Human MAO-A and MAO-B
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18936-18952; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118936
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 7 October 2014 / Accepted: 11 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 28 | PDF Full-text (1013 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Propolis is the resinous material that bees gather from leaf buds, flowers and vegetables. Propolis extracts contain constituents with a broad spectra of pharmacological properties and are important ingredients of popular dietary supplements. Propolis extracts were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of recombinant
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Propolis is the resinous material that bees gather from leaf buds, flowers and vegetables. Propolis extracts contain constituents with a broad spectra of pharmacological properties and are important ingredients of popular dietary supplements. Propolis extracts were evaluated in vitro for inhibition of recombinant human monoamine oxidase (MAO)-A and MAO-B. The dichloromethane extract of propolis showed potent inhibition of human MAO-A and MAO-B. Further fractionation identified the most active fractions as rich in flavonoids. Galangin and apigenin were identified as the principal MAO-inhibitory constituents. Inhibition of MAO-A by galangin was about 36 times more selective than MAO-B, while apigenin selectivity for MAO-A vs. MAO-B was about 1.7 fold. Apigenin inhibited MAO-B significantly more potently than galangin. Galangin and apigenin were further evaluated for kinetic characteristics and the mechanism for the enzymes’ inhibition. Binding of galangin and apigenin with MAO-A and -B was not time-dependent and was reversible, as suggested by enzyme-inhibitor binding and dissociation-dialysis assay. The inhibition kinetics studies suggested that galangin and apigenin inhibited MAO-A and -B by a competitive mechanism. Presence of prominent MAO inhibitory constituents in propolis products suggests their potential for eliciting pharmacological effects that might be useful in depression or other neurological disorders. The results may also have important implications in drug-dietary supplement interactions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Method Development and Validation for Pharmacokinetic and Tissue Distributions of Ellagic Acid Using Ultrahigh Performance Liquid Chromatography-Tandem Mass Spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS)
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18923-18935; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118923
Received: 4 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (477 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Ellagic acid is a dietary polyphenol found in numerous fruits and vegetables, possessing several health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic biological properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ellagic acid in rats. A
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Ellagic acid is a dietary polyphenol found in numerous fruits and vegetables, possessing several health benefits such as antioxidant, anticancer and anti-atherosclerotic biological properties. The purpose of this study was to explore the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of ellagic acid in rats. A simple, rapid, sensitive and specific liquid chromatography–tandem mass spectrometry method to determine the ellagic acid in plasma and tissue samples was developed and validated. The separation was achieved using reversed-phase ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC), and the mass spectrometric detection was achieved using heated electrospray ionization (negative mode) and multiple ion monitoring (m/z 301/229). A sample cleanup with a solid phase extraction (SPE) step prior to the UPLC-MS/MS analysis was also developed. The SPE and UPLC-MS/MS method established here was successfully applied to reveal the pharmacokinetic profiles and tissue distribution of ellagic acid. After oral administration dosing at 50 mg/kg, plasma levels of ellagic acid peaked at about 0.5 h, with Cmax value of 93.6 ng/mL, and the results showed that the ellagic acid was poorly absorbed after oral administration. The pharmacokinetic profile of ellagic acid fitted to a two-compartment model with t1/2α 0.25 h and t1/2β 6.86 h, respectively. Following oral administration, ellagic acid was detected in all examined tissues including kidney, liver, heart, lung and brain et al., and the highest levels were found in kidney and liver. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Rotenone Derivatives and in Vitro Analysis of Their Antimalarial, Antileishmanial and Selective Cytotoxic Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18911-18922; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118911
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (261 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Six derivatives of the known biopesticide rotenone were prepared by several chemical transformations. Rotenone and its derivatives showed differential in vitro antiparasitic activity and selective cytotoxicity. In general, compounds were more active against Plasmodium falciparum than Leishmania panamensis. Rotenone had an EC
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Six derivatives of the known biopesticide rotenone were prepared by several chemical transformations. Rotenone and its derivatives showed differential in vitro antiparasitic activity and selective cytotoxicity. In general, compounds were more active against Plasmodium falciparum than Leishmania panamensis. Rotenone had an EC50 of 19.0 µM against P. falciparum, and 127.2 µM against L. panamensis. Although chemical transformation does not improve its biological profile against P. falciparum, three of its derivatives showed a significant level of action within an adequate range of activity with EC50 values < 50.0 µM. This antiplasmodial activity was not due to red blood cell hemolysis, since LC50 was >>400 µM. On the other hand, all derivatives displayed a non-specific cytotoxicity on several cell lines and primary human cell cultures. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis, Characterization and Antimicrobial Evaluation of Some New Schiff, Mannich and Acetylenic Mannich Bases Incorporating a 1,2,4-Triazole Nucleus
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18897-18910; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118897
Received: 31 August 2014 / Revised: 29 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (301 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A series of Schiff and Mannich bases derived from 4-amino-5-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione were synthesized. The alkylation of 4-phenyl-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with propargyl bromide afforded the corresponding thiopropargylated derivative which upon treatment with the appropriate secondary amines in the presence of CuCl2 furnished
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A series of Schiff and Mannich bases derived from 4-amino-5-(3-fluoro-phenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione were synthesized. The alkylation of 4-phenyl-5-(3-fluorophenyl)-2,4-dihydro-3H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thione with propargyl bromide afforded the corresponding thiopropargylated derivative which upon treatment with the appropriate secondary amines in the presence of CuCl2 furnished the desired acetylenic Mannich bases. The synthesized compounds were characterized on the basis of their spectral (IR, 1H- and 13C-NMR) data and evaluated for their biological activities. Some of the compounds were found to exhibit significant antimicrobial activity. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Organic Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Profiling the Metabolism of Astragaloside IV by Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Quadrupole/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18881-18896; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118881
Received: 24 September 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (427 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological
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Astragaloside IV is a compound isolated from the Traditional Chinese Medicine Astragalus membranaceus, that has been reported to have bioactivities against cardiovascular disease and kidney disease. There is limited information on the metabolism of astragaloside IV, which impedes comprehension of its biological actions and pharmacology. In the present study, an ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with quadrupole/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-Q-TOF-MS/MS)-based approach was developed to profile the metabolites of astragaloside IV in rat plasma, bile, urine and feces samples. Twenty-two major metabolites were detected. The major components found in plasma, bile, urine and feces included the parent chemical and phases I and II metabolites. The major metabolic reactions of astragaloside IV were hydrolysis, glucuronidation, sulfation and dehydrogenation. These results will help to improve understanding the metabolism and reveal the biotransformation profiling of astragaloside IV in vivo. The metabolic information obtained from our study will guide studies into the pharmacological activity and clinical safety of astragaloside IV. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Recent Research Progress on the Astragalus Genus
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18850-18880; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118850
Received: 22 July 2014 / Revised: 23 October 2014 / Accepted: 24 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 39 | PDF Full-text (1430 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for “qi deficiency” syndrome
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Astragalus L., is one of the largest genuses of flowering plants in the Leguminosae family. Roots of A. membranaceus Bge. var. mongholicus (Bge.) Hsiao, A. membranaceus (Fisch.) Bge. and its processed products are listed in the China Pharmacopeia for “qi deficiency” syndrome treatment. However, more and more researches on other species of Astragalus have been conducted recently. We summarize the recent researches of Astragalus species in phytochemistry and pharmacology. More than 200 constituents, including saponins and flavonoids, obtained from 46 species of Astragalus genus were collected for this article. In pharmacological studies, crude extracts of Astragalus, as well as isolated constituents showed anti-inflammatory, immunostimulant, antioxidative, anti-cancer, antidiabetic, cardioprotective, hepatoprotective, and antiviral activities. The goal of this article is to provide an overview of chemical and pharmacological studies on the Astragalus species over the last 10 years, which could be of value to new drug or food supplement research and development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Kinetics of Glycoxidation of Bovine Serum Albumin by Glucose, Fructose and Ribose and Its Prevention by Food Components
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18828-18849; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118828
Received: 12 October 2014 / Revised: 9 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (363 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound fructosamine,
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The aim of this study was to compare the kinetics of the glycoxidation of bovine serum albumin (BSA) as a model protein by three sugars: glucose, fructose and ribose, using fluorometric measurements of the content of advanced glycation end products (AGEs), protein-bound fructosamine, dityrosine, N'-formylkynurenine, kynurenine, tryptophan, the content of advanced oxidation protein products (AOPP), protein carbonyl groups, as well as thiol groups. Moreover, the levels of glycoalbumin and AGEs were determined by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Based on the kinetic results, the optimal incubation time for studies of the modification of the glycoxidation rate by additives was chosen, and the effects of 25 compounds of natural origin on the glycoxidation of BSA induced by various sugars were examined. The same compounds were found to have different effects on glycoxidation induced by various sugars, which suggests caution in extrapolation from experiments based on one sugar to other sugars. From among the compounds tested, the most effective inhibitors of glycoxidation were: polyphenols, pyridoxine and 1-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessReview Banana Lectin: A Brief Review
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18817-18827; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118817
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 5 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (254 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Lectins are a group of proteins of non-immune origin that recognize and bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. Banana is the common name for both herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. They are indeed a promising source
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Lectins are a group of proteins of non-immune origin that recognize and bind to carbohydrates without modifying them. Banana is the common name for both herbaceous plants of the genus Musa and for the fruit they produce. They are indeed a promising source for many medicinal applications. Banana lectins have the potential for inhibiting HIV-1 reverse transcriptase activity, suppressing cancer cell proliferation and stimulating macrophage activities. Nevertheless, compared to other plant lectins, there is relatively little information in the literature on banana lectins, particularly with respect to their structure and biological functions. Herein we focus our review on the structure, functions and exploitable properties of banana lectins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Lectins)
Open AccessReview Cannabinoids: New Promising Agents in the Treatment of Neurological Diseases
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18781-18816; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118781
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 7 November 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 21 | PDF Full-text (734 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug. In fact, the use of compounds
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Nowadays, Cannabis sativa is considered the most extensively used narcotic. Nevertheless, this fame obscures its traditional employ in native medicine of South Africa, South America, Turkey, Egypt and in many regions of Asia as a therapeutic drug. In fact, the use of compounds containing Cannabis and their introduction in clinical practice is still controversial and strongly limited by unavoidable psychotropic effects. So, overcoming these adverse effects represents the main open question on the utilization of cannabinoids as new drugs for treatment of several pathologies. To date, therapeutic use of cannabinoid extracts is prescribed in patients with glaucoma, in the control of chemotherapy-related vomiting and nausea, for appetite stimulation in patients with anorexia-cachexia syndrome by HIV, and for the treatment of multiple sclerosis symptoms. Recently, researcher efforts are aimed to employ the therapeutic potentials of Cannabis sativa in the modulation of cannabinoid receptor activity within the central nervous system, particularly for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases, as well as psychiatric and non-psychiatric disorders. This review evaluates the most recent available data on cannabinoids utilization in experimental and clinical studies, and highlights their beneficial effects in the prevention of the main neurological diseases and for the clinical treatment of symptoms with them correlated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Curcumin Protects against CCl4-Induced Liver Fibrosis in Rats by Inhibiting HIF-1α Through an ERK-Dependent Pathway
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18767-18780; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118767
Received: 4 September 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 27 October 2014 / Published: 17 November 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (4460 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway is believed to play an important role in the genesis of progressive fibrosis. An increasing expression of HIF-1α and ERK accompanies CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Curcumin is verified to have antifibrotic effects in several kinds of
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The ERK/HIF-1α signaling pathway is believed to play an important role in the genesis of progressive fibrosis. An increasing expression of HIF-1α and ERK accompanies CCl4-induced liver fibrosis in rats. Curcumin is verified to have antifibrotic effects in several kinds of liver fibrosis models. There is no specific evidence illustrating a connection between curcumin and the HIF-1α/ERK pathway in rat liver fibrosis induced by CCl4. In this study, liver fibrosis was induced by CCl4 in treated rats. The data demonstrated that curcumin was able to attenuate liver fibrosis and inhibit the proliferation of HSC. Moreover, curcumin could remarkably elevate the hepatic function by decreasing serum levels of ALT, AST and ALP, and increasing levels of ALB, TP and α-SMA, Col III mRNA expression. Meanwhile, ECM status could also be reflected by curcumin treatment. The alleviation with curcumin treatment was associated with inhibition of HIF-1α and phosphor-ERK. This study indicates that curcumin alleviates fibrosis by reducing the expression of HIF-1α partly through the ERK pathway. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Curcumin, Inflammation, and Chronic Diseases: How are They Linked?)
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Open AccessReview The Role of Acyl-Glucose in Anthocyanin Modifications
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 18747-18766; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191118747
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 10 November 2014 / Published: 14 November 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (594 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Higher plants can produce a wide variety of anthocyanin molecules through modification of the six common anthocyanin aglycons that they present. Thus, hydrophilic anthocyanin molecules can be formed and stabilized by glycosylation and acylation. Two types of glycosyltransferase (GT) and acyltransferase (AT) have
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Higher plants can produce a wide variety of anthocyanin molecules through modification of the six common anthocyanin aglycons that they present. Thus, hydrophilic anthocyanin molecules can be formed and stabilized by glycosylation and acylation. Two types of glycosyltransferase (GT) and acyltransferase (AT) have been identified, namely cytoplasmic GT and AT and vacuolar GT and AT. Cytoplasmic GT and AT utilize UDP-sugar and acyl-CoA as donor molecules, respectively, whereas both vacuolar GT and AT use acyl-glucoses as donor molecules. In carnation plants, vacuolar GT uses aromatic acyl-glucoses as the glucose donor in vivo; independently, vacuolar AT uses malylglucose, an aliphatic acyl-glucose, as the acyl-donor. In delphinium and Arabidopsis, p-hydroxybenzoylglucose and sinapoylglucose are used in vivo as bi-functional donor molecules by vacuolar GT and AT, respectively. The evolution of these enzymes has allowed delphinium and Arabidopsis to utilize unique donor molecules for production of highly modified anthocyanins. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins) Printed Edition available
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