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Molecules, Volume 19, Issue 11 (November 2014), Pages 17066-19252

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Open AccessArticle Antifungal Compounds Produced by Colletotrichum gloeosporioides, an Endophytic Fungus from Michelia champaca
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19243-19252; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119243
Received: 8 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (353 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated
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In this study, eight endophytic fungi were isolated from the leaves, stems and roots of Michelia champaca. The isolates were screened and evaluated for their antifungal, anticancer and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activities. All of the extracts exhibited potent activity against two evaluated phytopathogenic fungi. Chemical investigation of EtOAc extracts of the endophytic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides resulted in the isolation of one new compound, 2-phenylethyl 1H-indol-3-yl-acetate (1), and seven known compounds: uracil (2), cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Tyr) (3), cyclo-(S*-Pro-S*-Val) (4), 2(2-aminophenyl)acetic acid (5), 2(4-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (6), 4-hydroxy- benzamide (7) and 2(2-hydroxyphenyl)acetic acid (8). All of the compound structures were elucidated using 1D and 2D NMR and MS analyses. The antifungal and AChE inhibitory activities of compounds 18 were evaluated in vitro. Compound 1 exhibited promising activity against Cladosporium cladosporioides and C. sphaerospermum that was comparable to that of the positive control nystatin. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Volatile Profiling of Aromatic Traditional Medicinal Plant, Polygonum minus in Different Tissues and Its Biological Activities
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19220-19242; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119220
Received: 22 August 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 20 November 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (615 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and
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The aim of this research was to identify the volatile metabolites produced in different organs (leaves, stem and roots) of Polygonum minus, an important essential oil producing crop in Malaysia. Two methods of extraction have been applied: Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME) and hydrodistillation coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS). Approximately, 77 metabolites have been identified and aliphatic compounds contribute significantly towards the aroma and flavour of this plant. Two main aliphatic compounds: decanal and dodecanal were found to be the major contributor. Terpenoid metabolites were identified abundantly in leaves but not in the stem and root of this plant. Further studies on antioxidant, total phenolic content, anticholinesterase and antimicrobial activities were determined in the essential oil and five different extracts. The plant showed the highest DPPH radical scavenging activity in polar (ethanol) extract for all the tissues tested. For anti-acetylcholinesterase activity, leaf in aqueous extract and methanol extract showed the best acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activities. However, in microbial activity, the non-polar extracts (n-hexane) showed high antimicrobial activity against Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) compared to polar extracts. This study could provide the first step in the phytochemical profiles of volatile compounds and explore the additional value of pharmacology properties of this essential oil producing crop Polygonum minus. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Metabolites)
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Open AccessArticle Discovery of Novel Small-Molecule Compounds with Selective Cytotoxicity for Burkitt’s Lymphoma Cells Using 3D Ligand-Based Virtual Screening
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19209-19219; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119209
Received: 15 October 2014 / Revised: 6 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
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Abstract
We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that
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We describe a ligand-based approach towards compounds with more specific targeting for Burkitt’s lymphoma. Using three-dimensional ligand-based similarity searches and a previously described hit compound, we have identified six compounds that are chemically different but with similar spatial conformations. Biological evaluation revealed that one compound has better growth inhibition and improved selectivity towards Burkitt’s lymphoma cells than the query compound. However, initial mechanism-of-action studies show a different target profile in comparison with the previous hit compound, which does not involve the inhibition of the proteasome or the NFκB pathway. The data from this study provide a solid basis for further efforts in the search for selective agents against Burkitt’s lymphoma. Full article
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Open AccessReview Antioxidant Property of Coffee Components: Assessment of Methods that Define Mechanisms of Action
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19180-19208; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119180
Received: 6 September 2014 / Revised: 4 November 2014 / Accepted: 4 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 53 | PDF Full-text (677 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Brewed coffee is
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Coffee is a rich source of dietary antioxidants, and this property, coupled with the fact that coffee is one of the world’s most popular beverages, has led to the understanding that coffee is a major contributor to dietary antioxidant intake. Brewed coffee is a complex food matrix with numerous phytochemical components that have antioxidant activity capable of scavenging free radicals, donating hydrogen and electrons, providing reducing activity and also acting as metal ion pro-oxidant chelators. More recent studies have shown that coffee components can trigger tissue antioxidant gene expression and protect against gastrointestinal oxidative stress. This paper will describe different in vitro, cell-free and cell-based assays that both characterize and compare the antioxidant capacity and mechanism of action of coffee and its bioactive constituents. Moreover, evidence of cellular antioxidant activity and correlated specific genomic events induced by coffee components, which are relevant to antioxidant function in both animal and human studies, will be discussed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessArticle Anti-Cholinesterase Activity of Lycopodium Alkaloids from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa (Forst.) Trevis
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19172-19179; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119172
Received: 6 October 2014 / Revised: 14 November 2014 / Accepted: 17 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa.
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A series of Lycopodium alkaloids, namely lycosquarosine A (1), acetylaposerratinine (2), huperzine A (3), huperzine B (4), 8α-hydrophlemariurine B (5), and huperzinine (6), has been isolated from Vietnamese Huperzia squarrosa. Among them, lycosquarosine A (1) is the new metabolite of the natural source. Lycosquarosine A completely inhibited AChE activity in a dose dependent manner with an IC50 value of 54.3 μg/mL, while acetylaposerratinine (2) showed stronger inhibitory activity than 1 with an IC50 value of 15.2 µg/mL. This result indicates that these alkaloids may be a potent source of AChE inhibitors. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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Open AccessArticle Spectral and Kinetic Properties of Radicals Derived from Oxidation of Quinoxalin-2-One and Its Methyl Derivative
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19152-19171; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119152
Received: 9 October 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (1756 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The kinetics and spectral characteristics of the transients formed in the reactions of OH and N3 with quinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q), its methyl derivative, 3-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (3-MeQ) and pyrazin-2-one (Pyr) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions at
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The kinetics and spectral characteristics of the transients formed in the reactions of OH and N3 with quinoxalin-2(1H)-one (Q), its methyl derivative, 3-methylquinoxalin-2(1H)-one (3-MeQ) and pyrazin-2-one (Pyr) were studied by pulse radiolysis in aqueous solutions at pH 7. The transient absorption spectra recorded in the reactions of OH with Q and 3-MeQ consisted of an absorption band with λmax = 470 nm assigned to the OH-adducts on the benzene ring, and a second band with λmax = 390 nm (for Q) and 370 nm (for 3-MeQ) assigned, inter alia, to the N-centered radicals on a pyrazin-2-one ring. The rate constants of the reactions of OH with Q and 3-MeQ were found to be in the interval (5.9–9.7) × 109 M–1·s–1 and were assigned to their addition to benzene and pyrazin-2-one rings and H-abstraction from the pyrazin-2-one nitrogen. In turn, the transient absorption spectrum observed in the reaction of N3 exhibits an absorption band with λmax = 350 nm. This absorption was assigned to the N-centered radical on the Pyr ring formed after deprotonation of the respective radical cation resulting from one-electron oxidation of 3-MeQ. The rate constant of the reaction of N3 with 3 MeQ was found to be (6.0 ± 0.5) × 109 M–1·s–1. Oxidation of 3-MeQ by N3 and Pyr by OH and N3 confirms earlier spectral assignments. With the rate constant of the OH radical with Pyr (k = 9.2 ± 0.2) × 109 M–1·s‒1, a primary distribution of the OH attack was estimated nearly equal between benzene and pyrazin-2-one rings. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessReview Synthetic Applications of Intramolecular Thiol-Ene “Click” Reactions
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19137-19151; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119137
Received: 17 October 2014 / Revised: 13 November 2014 / Accepted: 14 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 20 | PDF Full-text (864 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intermolecular thiol-ene reaction is emerging as a highly efficient; free-radical mediated “click” process with diverse applications in biofunctionalisation and materials science. The related intramolecular thiol-ene reactions offer significant potential for the preparation of a wide range of sulphur containing heterocycles including synthetic
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The intermolecular thiol-ene reaction is emerging as a highly efficient; free-radical mediated “click” process with diverse applications in biofunctionalisation and materials science. The related intramolecular thiol-ene reactions offer significant potential for the preparation of a wide range of sulphur containing heterocycles including synthetic therapeutics such as cyclic peptides and thiosugars. Herein, we review recent advances in intramolecular thiyl-radical mediated reactions and their applications for synthetic and medicinal chemistry. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Free Radicals and Radical Ions)
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Open AccessArticle Vernonia kotschyana Roots: Therapeutic Potential via Antioxidant Activity
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19114-19136; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119114
Received: 10 August 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (345 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts
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The roots of Vernonia kotschyana Sch. Bip. ex Walp. (Asteraceae) are used in Malian traditional medicine in the treatment of gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis. Since oxidative stress is involved in gastric ulceration, the aim of this study was to screen the root extracts for their in vitro antioxidant activity and phenolic content. The roots were extracted successively with chloroform, ethyl acetate, ethanol and water. The antioxidant activity of root extracts was evaluated in both cell-free and cell-based assays. Their chemical characterization was performed by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) whereas the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteu method. The ethyl acetate extract displayed the highest phenolic content and was found to be the most active in the free radical scavenging and lipid peroxidation inhibition assays; it also showed a high antioxidant activity in MCF-12F cells. This study suggests a potential use of the ethyl acetate extract of Vernonia kotschyana not only as an antioxidant agent in gastroduodenal ulcers and gastritis, but also in other disorders characterized by high levels of oxidative stress. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Aroma-Active Compounds in Jinhua Ham Produced With Different Fermentation Periods
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19097-19113; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119097
Received: 12 September 2014 / Revised: 21 October 2014 / Accepted: 5 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (510 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on
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The aroma-active compounds in Jinhua ham processed and stored for 9, 12, 15 and 18 months were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling (DHS) and solvent-assisted flavor evaporation (SAFE) and analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS). In GC-O-MS, volatile compounds were identified based on their mass spectrum, linear retention index (LRI), odor properties, or reference compound comparisons. The results showed that a total number of 81 aroma-active compounds were identified by GC-O-MS. Among them, acids (such as acetic acid, butanoic acid and 3-methylbutanoic acid), saturated aldehydes (such as hexanal, heptanal, octanal and 3-methylbutanal), benzene derivatives (such as benzeneacetic acid), ester and lactone (such as γ-nonalactone and γ-decalactone) were identified as critical compounds in Jinhua ham aroma. The results also indicated that the type and content of the odorants increased significantly with the duration of the fermentation period. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Composition and Antioxidant Activity of the Anthocyanins of the Fruit of Berberis heteropoda Schrenk
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19078-19096; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119078
Received: 16 October 2014 / Revised: 28 October 2014 / Accepted: 3 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (604 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified
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In present study, the anthocyanin composition and content of the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk were determined for the first time. The total anthocyanins were extracted from the fruit of B. heteropoda Schrenk using 0.5% HCl in 80% methanol and were then purified using an AB-8 macroporous resin column. The purified anthocyanin extract (PAE) was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography with a diode array detector (HPLC-DAD) and HPLC-high resolution-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (HPLC-HR-ESI-MS) under the same experimental conditions. The results revealed the presence of seven different anthocyanins. The major anthocyanins purified by preparative HPLC were confirmed to be delphinidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (30.3%), cyanidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (33.5%), petunidin-3-Ο-glucopyranoside (10.5%), peonidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (8.5%) and malvidin-3-O-glucopyranoside (13.8%) using HPLC-HR-ESI-MS and NMR spectroscopy. The total anthocyanin content was 2036.6 ± 2.2 mg/100 g of the fresh weight of B. heteropoda Schrenk fruit. In terms of its total reducing capacity assay, DPPH radical-scavenging activity assay, ferric-reducing antioxidant power (FRAP) assay and ABTS radical cation-scavenging activity assay, the PAE also showed potent antioxidant activity. The results are valuable for illuminating anthocyanins composition of B. heteropoda Schrenk and for further utilising them as a promising anthocyanin pigment source. This research enriched the chemical information of B. heteropoda Schrenk. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Anthocyanins) Printed Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Pentadecapeptide BPC 157 Enhances the Growth Hormone Receptor Expression in Tendon Fibroblasts
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19066-19077; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119066
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 12 November 2014 / Accepted: 13 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 22 | PDF Full-text (323 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed
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BPC 157, a pentadecapeptide derived from human gastric juice, has been demonstrated to promote the healing of different tissues, including skin, muscle, bone, ligament and tendon in many animal studies. However, the underlying mechanism has not been fully clarified. The present study aimed to explore the effect of BPC 157 on tendon fibroblasts isolated from Achilles tendon of male Sprague-Dawley rat. From the result of cDNA microarray analysis, growth hormone receptor was revealed as one of the most abundantly up-regulated genes in tendon fibroblasts by BPC 157. BPC 157 dose- and time-dependently increased the expression of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts at both the mRNA and protein levels as measured by RT/real-time PCR and Western blot, respectively. The addition of growth hormone to BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts dose- and time-dependently increased the cell proliferation as determined by MTT assay and PCNA expression by RT/real-time PCR. Janus kinase 2, the downstream signal pathway of growth hormone receptor, was activated time-dependently by stimulating the BPC 157-treated tendon fibroblasts with growth hormone. In conclusion, the BPC 157-induced increase of growth hormone receptor in tendon fibroblasts may potentiate the proliferation-promoting effect of growth hormone and contribute to the healing of tendon. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis and Biological Evaluation of New Pleuromutilin Derivatives as Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19050-19065; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119050
Received: 23 October 2014 / Revised: 11 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 19 November 2014
Cited by 14 | PDF Full-text (2267 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Several pleuromutilin derivatives possessing thiadiazole moieties were synthesized via acylation reactions under mild conditions. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the derivatives against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and B. cereus
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Several pleuromutilin derivatives possessing thiadiazole moieties were synthesized via acylation reactions under mild conditions. The in vitro antibacterial activities of the derivatives against methicillin-resistant S. aureus, methicillin-resistant S. epidermidis, S. aureus, S. epidermidis, E. coli, and B. cereus were tested by the agar dilution method and Oxford cup assay. All the screened compounds displayed potent activity. Compound 6d was the most active antibacterial agent because of its lowest MIC value and largest inhibition zone. Docking experiments were performed to understand the possible mode of the interactions between the derivatives and 50S ribosomal subunit. Moreover, the absorption, distribution, metabolism, excretion and toxicity properties of the synthesized compounds were analyzed after prediction using the Advanced Chemistry Development/Percepta Platform available online. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Medicinal Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Antioxidant Mechanism of Rutin on Hypoxia-Induced Pulmonary Arterial Cell Proliferation
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19036-19049; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119036
Received: 26 August 2014 / Revised: 28 September 2014 / Accepted: 9 October 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 13 | PDF Full-text (2948 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study,
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Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are involved in the pathologic process of pulmonary arterial hypertension as either mediators or inducers. Rutin is a type of flavonoid which exhibits significant scavenging properties on oxygen radicals both in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we proposed that rutin attenuated hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation by scavenging ROS. Immunofluorescence data showed that rutin decreased the production of ROS, which was mainly generated through mitochondria and NADPH oxidase 4 (Nox4) in pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs). Western blot results provided further evidence on rutin increasing expression of Nox4 and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α). Moreover, cell cycle analysis by flow cytometry indicated that proliferation of PASMCs triggered by hypoxia was also repressed by rutin. However, N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC), a scavenger of ROS, abolished or diminished the capability of rutin in repressing hypoxia-induced cell proliferation. These data suggest that rutin shows a potential benefit against the development of hypoxic pulmonary arterial hypertension by inhibiting ROS, subsequently preventing hypoxia-induced PASMC proliferation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Section Natural Products Chemistry)
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Open AccessArticle Design, Synthesis, and Biological Evaluation of Artemisinin-Indoloquinoline Hybrids as Potent Antiproliferative Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19021-19035; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119021
Received: 13 August 2014 / Revised: 10 November 2014 / Accepted: 12 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (302 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in
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A series of artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrids were designed and synthesized in an attempt to develop potent and selective anti-tumor agents. Compounds 7a7f, 8 and 9 were prepared and characterized. Their antiproliferative activities against MV4-11, HCT-116, A549, and BALB/3T3 cell lines in vitro were tested. Nearly all of the tested compounds (79, except for compounds 7d and 7e against HCT-116) showed an increased antitumor activity against HCT-116 and A549 cell lines when compared to the dihydroartemisinin control. Especially for the artemisinin-indoloquinoline hybrid 8, with an 11-aminopropylamino-10H-indolo[3,2-b]quinoline substituent, the antiproliferative activity against the A549 cell line had improved more than ten times. The IC50 value of hybrid 8 against A549 cell lines was decreased to 1.328 ± 0.586 μM, while dihydroartemisin showed IC50 value of >20 µM in the same cell line. Thus, these results have proven that the strategy of introducing a planar basic fused aromatic moiety, such as the indoloquinoline skeleton, could improve the antiproliferative activity and selectivity towards cancer cell lines. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Essential Oil of Eucalyptus Gunnii Hook. As a Novel Source of Antioxidant, Antimutagenic and Antibacterial Agents
Molecules 2014, 19(11), 19007-19020; https://doi.org/10.3390/molecules191119007
Received: 5 September 2014 / Revised: 7 November 2014 / Accepted: 11 November 2014 / Published: 18 November 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (259 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and
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The present study describes radical scavenging capacity (RSC), antimutagenic and antibacterial properties of the essential oil (EO) of the leaves of Eucalyptus gunnii Hook. (Southern Montenegro). Chemical composition was evaluated by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). In oil, 1,8-cineole (67.8%) and α-pinene (14.12%) were the major compounds comprising almost 82% of total EO. EO exhibited moderate DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) scavenging activity, with IC50 value of 7.19 µL/mL. The antimutagenic properties were assayed against the spontaneous and t-BOOH-induced mutagenesis in Escherichia coli IC202 oxyR mutant strain, deficient in removing radical oxygen species (ROS). Reduction of the spontaneous mutagenesis in the presence of E. gunnii EO was only slight, up to 12% at the highest concentration tested. However, when the oxidative mutagen was used, EO displayed more significant reduction of mutagenesis (maximum 23%) in a concentration dependent manner. Antibacterial activity was tested against the selected strains from ATTC and NCIB collections: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, Bacillus subtilis, Micrococcus flavus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, and the two Escherichia coli strains from our laboratory collection (SY252 and IB112) using both the disk-diffusion and MIC assays. The greatest sensitivity was shown by M. flavus, K. pneumoniae and E. coli lpcA (MIC = 0.83 mg/mL), while the highest resistance was shown by E. coli (ATTC 25922) and S. epidermidis. This study represents the first report on chemical composition and biological activity of the Eucalyptus gunnii in the South Balkan region and beyond. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Bioactive Compounds)
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