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The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in the Management of Cerebrovascular Lesions
Department of Neurosurgery, Thomas Jefferson University and Jefferson Hospital for Neuroscience, Philadelphia, PA 19107, USA
Department of Neurosurgery, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 14 June 2013; Accepted: 8 August 2013 / Published: 13 August 2013
Abstract: Inflammation is increasingly being understood to be a key component to the pathophysiology of cerebrovascular lesions. Ferumoxytol, an iron oxide nanoparticle coated by a carbohydrate shell, has been used in MRI studies as an inflammatory marker because it is cleared by macrophages. Ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI has emerged as an important tool for noninvasive assessment of the inflammatory status of cerebrovascular lesions, namely aneurysms and arteriovenous malformations. Moreover, preliminary evidence suggests that ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI could be applied as a non-invasive tool to differentiate “unstable” lesions that require early intervention from “stable” lesions in which observation may be safe. Assessment of the effects of anti-inflammatory pharmacological interventions on cerebrovascular lesions is also a potentially crucial application of the technique. Future improvements in technique and MRI signal quantification will certainly pave the way for widespread and efficient use of ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI in clinical practice. In this paper, we review current data regarding ferumoxytol-enhanced MRI and discuss its current/potential applications and future perspectives.
Keywords: aneurysm; ferumoxytol; arteriovenous malformation; magnetic resonance imaging; inflammation
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Chalouhi, N.; Jabbour, P.; Magnotta, V.; Hasan, D. The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in the Management of Cerebrovascular Lesions. Molecules 2013, 18, 9670-9683.
Chalouhi N, Jabbour P, Magnotta V, Hasan D. The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in the Management of Cerebrovascular Lesions. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9670-9683.
Chalouhi, Nohra; Jabbour, Pascal; Magnotta, Vincent; Hasan, David. 2013. "The Emerging Role of Ferumoxytol-Enhanced MRI in the Management of Cerebrovascular Lesions." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9670-9683.