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Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9352-9381; doi:10.3390/molecules18089352
Review

Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

 and *
Department of Chemistry, Wayne State University, Detroit, MI 48202, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 19 June 2013 / Revised: 28 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contrast Agents)
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Abstract

This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents.
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; contrast agents; PARACEST; water-exchange rate magnetic resonance imaging; contrast agents; PARACEST; water-exchange rate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).
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Siriwardena-Mahanama, B.N.; Allen, M.J. Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Molecules 2013, 18, 9352-9381.

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