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Molecules 2013, 18(8), 9352-9381; doi:10.3390/molecules18089352
Review

Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging

 and *
Received: 19 June 2013; in revised form: 28 July 2013 / Accepted: 31 July 2013 / Published: 5 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Contrast Agents)
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Abstract: This review describes recent advances in strategies for tuning the water-exchange rates of contrast agents for magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Water-exchange rates play a critical role in determining the efficiency of contrast agents; consequently, optimization of water-exchange rates, among other parameters, is necessary to achieve high efficiencies. This need has resulted in extensive research efforts to modulate water-exchange rates by chemically altering the coordination environments of the metal complexes that function as contrast agents. The focus of this review is coordination-chemistry-based strategies used to tune the water-exchange rates of lanthanide(III)-based contrast agents for MRI. Emphasis will be given to results published in the 21st century, as well as implications of these strategies on the design of contrast agents.
Keywords: magnetic resonance imaging; contrast agents; PARACEST; water-exchange rate magnetic resonance imaging; contrast agents; PARACEST; water-exchange rate
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Siriwardena-Mahanama, B.N.; Allen, M.J. Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Molecules 2013, 18, 9352-9381.

AMA Style

Siriwardena-Mahanama BN, Allen MJ. Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging. Molecules. 2013; 18(8):9352-9381.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Siriwardena-Mahanama, Buddhima N.; Allen, Matthew J. 2013. "Strategies for Optimizing Water-Exchange Rates of Lanthanide-Based Contrast Agents for Magnetic Resonance Imaging." Molecules 18, no. 8: 9352-9381.


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