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Gamma-Mangostin, a Micronutrient of Mangosteen Fruit, Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells
Department of Pharmacognosy, School of Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, and Center of e-CAM, Taipei Medical University, 250 Wusing St., Taipei 110, Taiwan
Center of Translational Research on Traditional Medicine, China Medical University and Hospital, 2 Yuh-Der Road, Taichung 40447, Taiwan
Graduate Institute of Clinical Medical Science, China Medical University, 91 Hsueh-Shih Road, Taichung 40402, Taiwan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 18 May 2012; in revised form: 25 June 2012 / Accepted: 27 June 2012 / Published: 3 July 2012
Abstract: Recently colorectal cancer rates have increased rapidly in Taiwan. The treatment of colorectal cancer includes surgery, radiation therapy and chemotherapy. Mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana) is a famous Asian tropical fruit. γ-Mangostin is a xanthone derivative isolated from the fruit hull. In previous studies, we found evidence of anti-inflammatory and anti-brain tumor activities in γ-mangostin. In this study, we performed further studies to assess the apoptotic effects of γ-mangostin on colorectal adenocarcinoma cells HT29. γ-Mangostin showed concentration and time-dependent cytotoxic effects on HT29 cells. Microscopic observation under Giemsa staining showed that γ-mangostin induced cellular swelling and the appearance of apoptotic bodies, characteristic of apoptosis in HT29 cells. In addition, flow cytometry analysis showed an increase of hypodiploid cells in γ-mangostin-treated HT29 cells, while enhancement of intracellular peroxide production was detected in the same γ-mangostin-treated cells by DCHDA assay and DiOC6(3) staining. In view of the above results, γ-mangostin has demonstrated anticancer activity and induces apoptosis in HT29 colorectal adenocarcinoma cells. The evidence suggests that γ-mangostin could serve as a micronutrient for colon cancer prevention and is a potential lead compound for the development of anti-colon cancer agents.
Keywords: Garcinia mangostana; γ-mangostin; colorectal adenocarcinoma; antiproliferation; apoptosis; reactive oxygen species
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MDPI and ACS Style
Chang, H.-F.; Yang, L.-L. Gamma-Mangostin, a Micronutrient of Mangosteen Fruit, Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Molecules 2012, 17, 8010-8021.
Chang H-F, Yang L-L. Gamma-Mangostin, a Micronutrient of Mangosteen Fruit, Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells. Molecules. 2012; 17(7):8010-8021.
Chang, Hui-Fang; Yang, Ling-Ling. 2012. "Gamma-Mangostin, a Micronutrient of Mangosteen Fruit, Induces Apoptosis in Human Colon Cancer Cells." Molecules 17, no. 7: 8010-8021.