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Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms
Department of Pharmacology and Neuroscience, University of North Texas Health Science Center at Fort Worth, 3500 Camp Bowie Blvd., Fort Worth, TX 76107-2699, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 April 2010; in revised form: 15 July 2010 / Accepted: 19 July 2010 / Published: 20 July 2010
Abstract: Unmanaged sudden withdrawal from the excessive consumption of alcohol (ethanol) adversely alters neuronal integrity in vulnerable brain regions such as the cerebellum, hippocampus, or cortex. In addition to well known hyperexcitatory neurotransmissions, ethanol withdrawal (EW) provokes the intense generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and the activation of stress-responding protein kinases, which are the focus of this review article. EW also inflicts mitochondrial membranes/membrane potential, perturbs redox balance, and suppresses mitochondrial enzymes, all of which impair a fundamental function of mitochondria. Moreover, EW acts as an age-provoking stressor. The vulnerable age to EW stress is not necessarily the oldest age and varies depending upon the target molecule of EW. A major female sex steroid, 17β-estradiol (E2), interferes with the EW-induced alteration of oxidative signaling pathways and thereby protects neurons, mitochondria, and behaviors. The current review attempts to provide integrated information at the levels of oxidative signaling mechanisms by which EW provokes brain injuries and E2 protects against it.
Keywords: antioxidant; brain aging; 17β-estradiol; ethanol withdrawal; mitochondria; oxidative stress; protein kinase; protein oxidation
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Cite This Article
MDPI and ACS Style
Jung, M.E.; Metzger, D.B. Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms. Molecules 2010, 15, 4984-5011.
Jung ME, Metzger DB. Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms. Molecules. 2010; 15(7):4984-5011.
Jung, Marianna E.; Metzger, Daniel B. 2010. "Alcohol Withdrawal and Brain Injuries: Beyond Classical Mechanisms." Molecules 15, no. 7: 4984-5011.