Molecules 2010, 15(4), 2211-2245; doi:10.3390/molecules15042211

The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges

Dipartimento di Chimica e Chimica Industriale, via Risorgimento 35, 56126 Pisa, Italy
* Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 3 March 2010; in revised form: 22 March 2010 / Accepted: 26 March 2010 / Published: 30 March 2010
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heck Coupling)
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Abstract: As the interest for environmental increases and environmental laws become more stringent, the need to replace existing processes with new more sustainable technologies becomes a primary objective. The use of ionic liquids to replace organic solvents in metal catalyzed reactions has recently gained much attention and great progress has been accomplished in this area in the last years. This paper reviews the recent developments in the application of ionic liquids and related systems (supported ionic liquids, ionic polymers, and so on) in the Heck reaction. Merits and achievements of ionic liquids were analyzed and discussed considering the possibility of increasing the effectiveness of industrial processes.
Keywords: ionic liquids; heck reaction; Pd catalyst; selectivity

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MDPI and ACS Style

Bellina, F.; Chiappe, C. The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges. Molecules 2010, 15, 2211-2245.

AMA Style

Bellina F, Chiappe C. The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges. Molecules. 2010; 15(4):2211-2245.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Bellina, Fabio; Chiappe, Cinzia. 2010. "The Heck Reaction in Ionic Liquids: Progress and Challenges." Molecules 15, no. 4: 2211-2245.

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