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Molecules 2008, 13(10), 2608-2627; doi:10.3390/molecules13102608
Article

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva

1,* , 1
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1
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1
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2, 2 and 2
1 Real-Time Analyzers, Inc., Middletown, CT 06457, USA 2 Yale University, New Haven CT 06520, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2008 / Revised: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 20 October 2008 / Published: 22 October 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5-Fluorouracil)
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Abstract

The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given.
Keywords: 5-FU; Chemotherapy; Drug analysis; Saliva analysis; Raman; SERS 5-FU; Chemotherapy; Drug analysis; Saliva analysis; Raman; SERS
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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Farquharson, S.; Gift, A.; Shende, C.; Inscore, F.; Ordway, B.; Farquharson, C.; Murren, J. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva. Molecules 2008, 13, 2608-2627.

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