Next Article in Journal
Anti-carcinogenic Effects of the Flavonoid Luteolin
Next Article in Special Issue
Influence of Spray-dried Hydroxyapatite-5-Fluorouracil Granules on Cell Lines Derived from Tissues of Mesenchymal Origin
Previous Article in Journal
The Synthesis of 1-(4-Triethoxysilyl)phenyl)-4,4,4-trifluoro-1,3-butanedione, a Novel Trialkoxysilane Monomer for the Preparation of Functionalized Sol-gel Matrix Materials
Previous Article in Special Issue
Radiation- and Photo-induced Activation of 5-Fluorouracil Prodrugs as a Strategy for the Selective Treatment of Solid Tumors
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessArticle
Molecules 2008, 13(10), 2608-2627; doi:10.3390/molecules13102608

Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva

1
Real-Time Analyzers, Inc., Middletown, CT 06457, USA
2
Yale University, New Haven CT 06520, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 August 2008 / Revised: 16 October 2008 / Accepted: 20 October 2008 / Published: 22 October 2008
(This article belongs to the Special Issue 5-Fluorouracil)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [462 KB, uploaded 18 June 2014]   |  

Abstract

The ability of surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) to measure 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) in saliva is presented. The approach is based on the capacity of Raman spectroscopy to provide a unique spectral signature for virtually every chemical, and the ability of SERS to provide μg/mL sensitivity. A simple sampling method, that employed 1-mm glass capillaries filled with silver-doped sol-gels, was developed to isolate 5-FU from potential interfering chemical components of saliva and simultaneously provide SERSactivity. The method involved treating a 1 mL saliva sample with 1 mL of acetic acid, drawing 10 μL of sample into a SERS-active capillary by syringe, and then measuring the SER spectrum. Quality SER spectra were obtained for samples containing as little as 2 μg of 5-FU in 1 mL saliva. The entire process, the acid pretreatment, extraction and spectral measurement, took less than 5 minutes. The SERS of 5-fluorouridine and 5-fluoro-2’-deoxyuridine, two major metabolites of 5-FU, were also measured and shown to have unique spectral peaks. These measurements suggest that disposable SERS-active capillaries could be used to measure 5-FU and metabolite concentrations in chemotherapy patient saliva, thereby providing metabolic data that would allow regulating dosage. Tentative vibrational mode assignments for 5-FU and its metabolites are also given. View Full-Text
Keywords: 5-FU; Chemotherapy; Drug analysis; Saliva analysis; Raman; SERS 5-FU; Chemotherapy; Drug analysis; Saliva analysis; Raman; SERS
Figures

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Farquharson, S.; Gift, A.; Shende, C.; Inscore, F.; Ordway, B.; Farquharson, C.; Murren, J. Surface-enhanced Raman Spectral Measurements of 5-Fluorouracil in Saliva. Molecules 2008, 13, 2608-2627.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics

1

Comments

[Return to top]
Molecules EISSN 1420-3049 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top