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Special Issue "Hybrid Polymeric Materials"

A special issue of Polymers (ISSN 2073-4360).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 October 2016)

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Joannis K. Kallitsis

1Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
2Foundation for Research and Technology-Hellas (FORTH) /
Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (ICE-HT), P.O. Box 1414, GR-265 04 Rio-Patras, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30 2610 962952
Interests: polymer chemistry; controlled polymerization techniques; polymeric hybrid materials; polymeric membranes; materials for energy related applications
Guest Editor
Assoc. Prof. Georgios Bokias

Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras, Greece and Visiting Faculty Member, Institute of Chemical Engineering Sciences (FORTH/ICE-HT), Stadiou Street, P.O. Box 1414, GR-26504, Rio-Patras, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Interests: stimuli-responsive and functional polymeric materials; synthetic and reversible hydrogels; optically-labelled polymers; hybrid inorganic/organic soft materials
Guest Editor
Dr. Valadoula Deimede

Department of Chemistry, University of Patras, GR-26504 Patras, Greece
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +30 2610 962958
Interests: polymer membranes; lithium ion batteries materials; alkaline exchange membranes, cross-linked polymers

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Hybrid polymeric materials, namely materials comprised of polymers and carbon nanostructures or inorganic constituents, represent a wide, rapidly growing research area targeting applications such as organic electronics, bioelectronics, diagnostics-imaging, and sensing, among others.

This Special Issue is dedicated to the synthesis, characterization and application of these emerging classes of materials and, more specifically, to functional polymers/carbon-based nanostructures such as fullerene, carbon nanotubes and graphene, polymer–metal or metal oxide nanoparticles, and finally polymeric metallocomplexes.

Prof. Dr. Joannis K. Kallitsis
Assoc. Prof. Dr. Georgios Bokias
Dr. Valadoula Deimede
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Polymers is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1400 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Fullerene–polymer hybrids
  • carbon nanotube–polymer hybrids
  • graphene–polymer hybrid
  • metallic nanoparticle–polymer hybrids
  • metal oxide–polymer nanoparticles hybrids
  • polymeric metallocomplexes

Published Papers (13 papers)

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Research

Jump to: Review

Open AccessArticle Polymer Conformation under Confinement
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 73; doi:10.3390/polym9020073
Received: 8 January 2017 / Revised: 28 January 2017 / Accepted: 13 February 2017 / Published: 20 February 2017
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1069 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The conformation of polymer chains under confinement is investigated in intercalated polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide)/sodium montmorillonite, PEO/Na+-MMT, hybrids were prepared utilizing melt intercalation with compositions where the polymer chains are mostly within the ~1 nm galleries of the inorganic
[...] Read more.
The conformation of polymer chains under confinement is investigated in intercalated polymer/layered silicate nanocomposites. Hydrophilic poly(ethylene oxide)/sodium montmorillonite, PEO/Na+-MMT, hybrids were prepared utilizing melt intercalation with compositions where the polymer chains are mostly within the ~1 nm galleries of the inorganic material. The polymer chains are completely amorphous in all compositions even at temperatures where the bulk polymer is highly crystalline. Attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR) is utilized to investigate the conformation of the polymer chains over a broad range of temperatures from below to much higher than the bulk polymer melting temperature. A systematic increase of the gauche conformation relatively to the trans is found with decreasing polymer content both for the C–C and the C–O bonds that exist along the PEO backbone indicating that the severe confinement and the proximity to the inorganic surfaces results in a more disordered state of the polymer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Wide-Range Magnetoelectric Response on Hybrid Polymer Composites Based on Filler Type and Content
Polymers 2017, 9(2), 62; doi:10.3390/polym9020062
Received: 14 December 2016 / Revised: 16 January 2017 / Accepted: 9 February 2017 / Published: 14 February 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (1390 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In order to obtain a wide-range magnetoelectric (ME) response on a ME nanocomposite that matches industry requirements, Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D)/CoFe2O4/P(VDF-TrFE) flexible films were produced by the solvent casting technique and their morphologic, piezoelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties were investigated. The
[...] Read more.
In order to obtain a wide-range magnetoelectric (ME) response on a ME nanocomposite that matches industry requirements, Tb0.3Dy0.7Fe1.92 (Terfenol-D)/CoFe2O4/P(VDF-TrFE) flexible films were produced by the solvent casting technique and their morphologic, piezoelectric, magnetic and magnetoelectric properties were investigated. The obtained composites revealed a high piezoelectric response (≈−18 pC·N−1) that is independent of the weight ratio between the fillers. In turn, the magnetic properties of the composites were influenced by the composite composition. It was found that the magnetization saturation values decreased with the increasing CoFe2O4 content (from 18.5 to 13.3 emu·g−1) while the magnetization and coercive field values increased (from 3.7 to 5.5 emu·g−1 and from 355.7 to 1225.2 Oe, respectively) with the increasing CoFe2O4 content. Additionally, the films showed a wide-range dual-peak ME response at room temperature with the ME coefficient increasing with the weight content of Terfenol-D, from 18.6 to 42.3 mV·cm−1·Oe−1. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Short-Term Water Exposure on the Mechanical Properties of Halloysite Nanotube-Multi Layer Graphene Reinforced Polyester Nanocomposites
Polymers 2017, 9(1), 27; doi:10.3390/polym9010027
Received: 5 December 2016 / Revised: 4 January 2017 / Accepted: 10 January 2017 / Published: 14 January 2017
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (4964 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The influence of short-term water absorption on the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes-multi layer graphene reinforced polyester hybrid nanocomposites has been investigated. The addition of nano-fillers significantly increased the flexural strength, tensile strength, and impact strength in dry and wet conditions. After short-term
[...] Read more.
The influence of short-term water absorption on the mechanical properties of halloysite nanotubes-multi layer graphene reinforced polyester hybrid nanocomposites has been investigated. The addition of nano-fillers significantly increased the flexural strength, tensile strength, and impact strength in dry and wet conditions. After short-term water exposure, the maximum microhardness, tensile, flexural and impact toughness values were observed at 0.1 wt % multi-layer graphene (MLG). The microhardness increased up to 50.3%, tensile strength increased up to 40% and flexural strength increased up to 44%. Compared to dry samples, the fracture toughness and surface roughness of all types of produced nanocomposites were increased that may be attributed to the plasticization effect. Scanning electron microscopy revealed that the main failure mechanism is caused by the weakening of the nano-filler-matrix interface induced by water absorption. It was further observed that synergistic effects were not effective at a concentration of 0.1 wt % to produce considerable improvement in the mechanical properties of the produced hybrid nanocomposites. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessCommunication Pentynyl Ether of β-Cyclodextrin Polymer and Silica Micro-Particles: A New Hybrid Material for Adsorption of Phenanthrene from Water
Polymers 2017, 9(1), 10; doi:10.3390/polym9010010
Received: 21 November 2016 / Revised: 27 December 2016 / Accepted: 29 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
PDF Full-text (3231 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
A new hybrid material for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from water was prepared by the polymerization of pentynyl beta-cyclodextrin (PyβCD) and silica micro-particles (SMP). Phenanthrene, being one of the important members of the PAH family and a potential risk for
[...] Read more.
A new hybrid material for the removal of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) from water was prepared by the polymerization of pentynyl beta-cyclodextrin (PyβCD) and silica micro-particles (SMP). Phenanthrene, being one of the important members of the PAH family and a potential risk for environmental pollution, was selected for this study. Results show that phenanthrene removal efficiency of the SMP was improved significantly after hybridization with PyβCD-polymer. Approximately 50% of the phenanthrene was removed in the first 60 min and more than 95% was removed in less than 7 h when 25 mL of the 2 ppm aqueous phenanthrene solution was incubated with the 100 mg of SMP-PyβCD-polymer material. Infrared spectroscopy and thermal gravimetric analysis show that the enhanced efficiency of the SMP-PyβCD-polymer compared to the unmodified SMP was due to the formation of the inclusion complexation of phenanthrene with the PyβCD. These results indicate that SMP-PyβCD polymers have a potential to be applied as molecular filters in water purification systems and also for waste water treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Rapid and Effective Removal of Cu2+ from Aqueous Solution Using Novel Chitosan and Laponite-Based Nanocomposite as Adsorbent
Polymers 2017, 9(1), 5; doi:10.3390/polym9010005
Received: 8 October 2016 / Revised: 11 December 2016 / Accepted: 21 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (3660 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, a novel method for preparing nanoparticle-polymer hybrid adsorbent was established. Laponite was dispersed in distilled water to form Laponite nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were pre-adsorbed by 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) to improve their dispersion stability in chitosan solution. The nanoparticle-polymer hybrid adsorbent
[...] Read more.
In this paper, a novel method for preparing nanoparticle-polymer hybrid adsorbent was established. Laponite was dispersed in distilled water to form Laponite nanoparticles. These nanoparticles were pre-adsorbed by 2-acrylamido-2-methylpropane-sulfonic acid (AMPS) to improve their dispersion stability in chitosan solution. The nanoparticle-polymer hybrid adsorbent was prepared by copolymerization of chitosan, acrylamide, acrylic acid, AMPS, and Laponite nanoparticles. Four adsorbents were obtained and characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller adsorption (BET). Additionally, the uptake capacities of Cu2+ using different samples were studied. Compared to the adsorbent without chitosan and Laponite components, the maximum uptake of the hybrid adsorbent increased from 0.58 to 1.28 mmol·g−1 and the adsorption equilibrium time of it decreased from more than 75 min to less than 35 min, which indicated that the addition of chitosan and Laponite could greatly increase the adsorption rate and capacity of polymer adsorbent. The effects of different experimental parameters—such as initial pH, temperature, and equilibrium Cu2+ concentration—on the adsorption capacities were studied. Desorption study indicated that this hybrid adsorbent was easy to be regenerated. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Synthesis of Polythiophene–Fullerene Hybrid Additives as Potential Compatibilizers of BHJ Active Layers
Polymers 2016, 8(12), 440; doi:10.3390/polym8120440
Received: 11 November 2016 / Revised: 9 December 2016 / Accepted: 13 December 2016 / Published: 18 December 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (6523 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Perfluorophenyl functionalities have been introduced as side chain substituents onto regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (rr-P3HT), under various percentages. These functional groups were then converted to azides which were used to create polymeric hybrid materials with fullerene species, either C60 or C
[...] Read more.
Perfluorophenyl functionalities have been introduced as side chain substituents onto regioregular poly(3-hexyl thiophene) (rr-P3HT), under various percentages. These functional groups were then converted to azides which were used to create polymeric hybrid materials with fullerene species, either C60 or C70. The P3HT–fullerene hybrids thus formed were thereafter evaluated as potential compatibilizers of BHJ active layers comprising P3HT and fullerene based acceptors. Therefore, a systematic investigation of the optical and morphological properties of the purified polymer–fullerene hybrid materials was performed, via different complementary techniques. Additionally, P3HT:PC70BM blends containing various percentages of the herein synthesized hybrid material comprising rr-P3HT and C70 were investigated via Transmission Electron Microscopy (TEM) in an effort to understand the effect of the hybrids as additives on the morphology and nanophase separation of this typically used active layer blend for OPVs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Preparation of Magnetic Iron Oxide Nanoparticles (MIONs) with Improved Saturation Magnetization Using Multifunctional Polymer Ligand
Polymers 2016, 8(11), 392; doi:10.3390/polym8110392
Received: 4 October 2016 / Revised: 30 October 2016 / Accepted: 31 October 2016 / Published: 8 November 2016
PDF Full-text (3759 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper describes the preparation of ultra-small magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MIONs) coated with water-soluble thioether end-functionalized polymer ligand pentaerythritol tetrakis 3-mercaptopropionate-polymethacrylic acid (PTMP-PMAA). The MIONs were prepared by co-precipitation of aqueous iron precursor solution at a high
[...] Read more.
This paper describes the preparation of ultra-small magnetic iron oxide (Fe3O4) nanoparticles (MIONs) coated with water-soluble thioether end-functionalized polymer ligand pentaerythritol tetrakis 3-mercaptopropionate-polymethacrylic acid (PTMP-PMAA). The MIONs were prepared by co-precipitation of aqueous iron precursor solution at a high temperature. The polymer modified MIONs were characterized by dynamic light scattering (DLS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray powder diffraction (XRD), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), and vibrating sample magnetometery (VSM). It was found that these MIONs were successfully modified by this water-soluble polymer ligand with a fairly uniform size and narrow size distribution. The dried powder of MIONs could be stored for a long time and re-dispersed well in water without any significant change. Additionally, the polymer concentration showed a significant effect on size and magnetic properties of the MIONs. The saturation magnetization was increased by optimizing the polymer concentration. Furthermore, the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2-5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT)-assay demonstrated that these MIONs were highly biocompatible and they could be successfully coupled with fluorescent dye Rhodamine due to the formation of amide bond between carboxylic acid groups of MIONs and amine groups of dye. The obtained results indicated that these multifunctional MIONs with rich surface chemistry exhibit admirable potential in biomedical applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Modification of Thermal and Mechanical Properties of PEG-PPG-PEG Copolymer (F127) with MA-POSS
Polymers 2016, 8(9), 341; doi:10.3390/polym8090341
Received: 14 August 2016 / Revised: 7 September 2016 / Accepted: 8 September 2016 / Published: 15 September 2016
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2065 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Pluronic F127 exhibits thermogelling behaviour at 20–30 °C via a micelle packing mechanism. Disruption of the micelle packing increases the sol-gel temperature, but results in the decrease of modulus. Herein, we reported a method to modify F127 with polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) to impart
[...] Read more.
Pluronic F127 exhibits thermogelling behaviour at 20–30 °C via a micelle packing mechanism. Disruption of the micelle packing increases the sol-gel temperature, but results in the decrease of modulus. Herein, we reported a method to modify F127 with polyhedral oligosilsesquioxane (POSS) to impart a higher gelling temperature without yielding the property and strength of the thermogel. The thermal degradation temperature was enhanced to 15 °C after POSS incorporation and the gelling temperature shifted 10 °C higher, without sacrificing the modulus of the gel. Rheological studies supported the claim that the gel property was reinforced after POSS incorporation. F127-POSS copolymer matrix stored more energy from POSS reinforcement, which saw larger Lissajous curve areas before the collapse of the microstructure for the same amount of stress applied. These results indicated that modification with POSS would raise the sol-gel transition temperature without sacrificing the modulus of the gel. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Enhanced Anti-Ultraviolet and Thermal Stability of a Pesticide via Modification of a Volatile Organic Compound (VOC)-Free Vinyl-Silsesquioxane in Desert Areas
Polymers 2016, 8(8), 282; doi:10.3390/polym8080282
Received: 13 June 2016 / Revised: 25 July 2016 / Accepted: 28 July 2016 / Published: 4 August 2016
PDF Full-text (1516 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Due to the effect of severe environmental conditions, such as intense heat, blowing sand, and ultraviolet light, conventional pesticide applications have repeatedly failed to adequately control mosquito and sandfly populations in desert areas. In this study, a vinyl silsesquioxane (VS) was added to
[...] Read more.
Due to the effect of severe environmental conditions, such as intense heat, blowing sand, and ultraviolet light, conventional pesticide applications have repeatedly failed to adequately control mosquito and sandfly populations in desert areas. In this study, a vinyl silsesquioxane (VS) was added to a pesticide (citral) to enhance residual, thermal and anti-ultraviolet properties via three double-bond reactions in the presence of an initiator: (1) the connection of VS and citral, (2) a radical self-polymerization of VS and (3) a radical self-polymerization of citral. VS-citral, the expected and main product of the copolymerization of VS and citral, was characterized using standard spectrum techniques. The molecular consequences of the free radical polymerization were analyzed by MALDITOF spectrometry. Anti-ultraviolet and thermal stability properties of the VS-citral system were tested using scanning spectrophotometry (SSP) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). The repellency of VS-citral decreased over time, from 97.63% at 0 h to 72.98% at 1 h and 60.0% at 2 h, as did the repellency of citral, from 89.56% at 0 h to 62.73% at 1 h and 50.95% at 2 h. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Enhancement in Mechanical and Shape Memory Properties for Liquid Crystalline Polyurethane Strengthened by Graphene Oxide
Polymers 2016, 8(7), 236; doi:10.3390/polym8070236
Received: 22 April 2016 / Revised: 6 June 2016 / Accepted: 9 June 2016 / Published: 19 July 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (5199 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Conventional shape memory polymers suffer the drawbacks of low thermal stability, low strength, and low shape recovery speed. In this study, main-chain liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU) that contains polar groups was synthesized. Graphene oxide (GO)/LCPU composite was fabricated using the solution casting method.
[...] Read more.
Conventional shape memory polymers suffer the drawbacks of low thermal stability, low strength, and low shape recovery speed. In this study, main-chain liquid crystalline polyurethane (LCPU) that contains polar groups was synthesized. Graphene oxide (GO)/LCPU composite was fabricated using the solution casting method. The tensile strength of GO/LCPU was 1.78 times that of neat LCPU. In addition, shape recovery speed was extensively improved. The average recovery rate of sample with 20 wt % GO loading was 9.2°/s, much faster than that of LCPU of 2.6°/s. The enhancement in mechanical property and shape memory behavior could be attributed to the structure of LCPU and GO, which enhanced the interfacial interactions between GO and LCPU. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessArticle Adsorption Profile of Basic Dye onto Novel Fabricated Carboxylated Functionalized Co-Polymer Nanofibers
Polymers 2016, 8(5), 177; doi:10.3390/polym8050177
Received: 14 March 2016 / Revised: 19 April 2016 / Accepted: 25 April 2016 / Published: 29 April 2016
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (4662 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Acrylonitrile-Styrene co-polymer was prepared by solution polymerization and fabricated into nanofibers using the electrospinning technique. The nanofiber polarization was enhanced through its surface functionalization with carboxylic acid groups by simple chemical modification. The carboxylic groups’ presence was dedicated using the FT-IR technique. SEM
[...] Read more.
Acrylonitrile-Styrene co-polymer was prepared by solution polymerization and fabricated into nanofibers using the electrospinning technique. The nanofiber polarization was enhanced through its surface functionalization with carboxylic acid groups by simple chemical modification. The carboxylic groups’ presence was dedicated using the FT-IR technique. SEM showed that the nanofiber attains a uniform and porous structure. The equilibrium and kinetic behaviors of basic violet 14 dye sorption onto the nanofibers were examined. Both Langmuir and Temkin models are capable of expressing the dye sorption process at equilibrium. The intraparticle diffusion and Boyd kinetic models specified that the intraparticle diffusion step was the main decolorization rate controlling the process. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Applications of Functionalized Carbon Nanotubes for the Therapy and Diagnosis of Cancer
Polymers 2017, 9(1), 13; doi:10.3390/polym9010013
Received: 10 October 2016 / Revised: 21 December 2016 / Accepted: 22 December 2016 / Published: 4 January 2017
PDF Full-text (2145 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive nanostructures that serve as multifunctional transporters in biomedical applications, especially in the field of cancer therapy and diagnosis. Owing to their easily tunable nature and remarkable properties, numerous functionalizations and treatments of CNTs have been attempted for their
[...] Read more.
Carbon nanotubes (CNTs) are attractive nanostructures that serve as multifunctional transporters in biomedical applications, especially in the field of cancer therapy and diagnosis. Owing to their easily tunable nature and remarkable properties, numerous functionalizations and treatments of CNTs have been attempted for their utilization as hybrid nano-carriers in the delivery of various anticancer drugs, genes, proteins, and immunotherapeutic molecules. In this review, we discuss the current advances in the applications of CNT-based novel delivery systems with an emphasis on the various functionalizations of CNTs. We also highlight recent findings that demonstrate their important roles in cancer imaging applications, demonstrating their potential as unique agents with high-level ultrasonic emission, strong Raman scattering resonance, and magnetic properties. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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Open AccessReview Composite Polymer Electrolytes: Nanoparticles Affect Structure and Properties
Polymers 2016, 8(11), 387; doi:10.3390/polym8110387
Received: 25 September 2016 / Revised: 25 October 2016 / Accepted: 26 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (10732 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network
[...] Read more.
Composite polymer electrolytes (CPEs) can significantly improve the performance in electrochemical devices such as lithium-ion batteries. This review summarizes property/performance relationships in the case where nanoparticles are introduced to polymer electrolytes. It is the aim of this review to provide a knowledge network that elucidates the role of nano-additives in the CPEs. Central to the discussion is the impact on the CPE performance of properties such as crystalline/amorphous structure, dielectric behavior, and interactions within the CPE. The amorphous domains of semi-crystalline polymer facilitate the ion transport, while an enhanced mobility of polymer chains contributes to high ionic conductivity. Dielectric properties reflect the relaxation behavior of polymer chains as an important factor in ion conduction. Further, the dielectric constant (ε) determines the capability of the polymer to dissolve salt. The atom/ion/nanoparticle interactions within CPEs suggest ways to enhance the CPE conductivity by generating more free lithium ions. Certain properties can be improved simultaneously by nanoparticle addition in order to optimize the overall performance of the electrolyte. The effects of nano-additives on thermal and mechanical properties of CPEs are also presented in order to evaluate the electrolyte competence for lithium-ion battery applications. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Hybrid Polymeric Materials)
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