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Special Issue "Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration"

A special issue of Marine Drugs (ISSN 1660-3397).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: 30 March 2019

Special Issue Editors

Guest Editor
Dr. Susan A Clarke

Faculty of Medicine, Health and Life Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bone repair; regenerative medicine; biomaterials; novel drugs
Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Fraser Buchanan

School of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Faculty of Engineering and Physical Sciences, Queen’s University Belfast
Website | E-Mail
Interests: bioresorbable biomaterials; bone repair; naturally derived biomaterials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Bioprospecting and technological advances allowing high-through-put screening, has seen a surge of interest in the identification of anti-cancer, anti-microbial and anti-inflammatory compounds from the marine environment. The search for compounds with more niche applications, such as bone repair, has been slower, yet marine organisms, themselves, in the form of coral, have been used as a bone substitute material since the 1970s and the marine environment is a rich source of mineralizing porous organisms.  In this Special Issue, we would like to explore the potential of products derived from marine organisms to promote bone repair, bone regeneration and bone development. The potential approaches are wide and varied; extraction of bioactive compounds with osteogenic activity, marine organisms as a source of osteogenic ions, marine organisms as bioactive adjuncts to traditional bone scaffold materials, porous marine organisms as biomimetic scaffolds or as templates for novel materials.

We invite manuscripts that explore any aspect of this research topic, ranging from the chemical extraction of novel osteogenic bioactive compounds to the use of the whole organism as a scaffold for bone tissue engineering, and everything in between. 

Dr. Susan A Clarke
Prof. Dr. Fraser Buchanan
Guest Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

Manuscripts should be submitted online at www.mdpi.com by registering and logging in to this website. Once you are registered, click here to go to the submission form. Manuscripts can be submitted until the deadline. All papers will be peer-reviewed. Accepted papers will be published continuously in the journal (as soon as accepted) and will be listed together on the special issue website. Research articles, review articles as well as short communications are invited. For planned papers, a title and short abstract (about 100 words) can be sent to the Editorial Office for announcement on this website.

Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. Marine Drugs is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1800 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • bone
  • osteogenic
  • mineralising
  • bioactives
  • marine organisms
  • tissue engineering

Published Papers (4 papers)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Marine Collagen/Apatite Composite Scaffolds Envisaging Hard Tissue Applications
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 269; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16080269
Received: 29 June 2018 / Revised: 21 July 2018 / Accepted: 1 August 2018 / Published: 3 August 2018
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Abstract
The high prevalence of bone defects has become a worldwide problem. Despite the significant amount of research on the subject, the available therapeutic solutions lack efficiency. Autografts, the most commonly used approaches to treat bone defects, have limitations such as donor site morbidity,
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The high prevalence of bone defects has become a worldwide problem. Despite the significant amount of research on the subject, the available therapeutic solutions lack efficiency. Autografts, the most commonly used approaches to treat bone defects, have limitations such as donor site morbidity, pain and lack of donor site. Marine resources emerge as an attractive alternative to extract bioactive compounds for further use in bone tissue-engineering approaches. On one hand they can be isolated from by-products, at low cost, creating value from products that are considered waste for the fish transformation industry. One the other hand, religious constraints will be avoided. We isolated two marine origin materials, collagen from shark skin (Prionace glauca) and calcium phosphates from the teeth of two different shark species (Prionace glauca and Isurus oxyrinchus), and further proposed to mix them to produce 3D composite structures for hard tissue applications. Two crosslinking agents, 1-[3-(dimethylamino)propyl]-3-ethylcarbodiimide hydrochloride/N-Hydroxysuccinimide (EDC/NHS) and hexamethylene diisocyanate (HMDI), were tested to enhance the scaffolds’ properties, with EDC/NHS resulting in better properties. The characterization of the structures showed that the developed composites could support attachment and proliferation of osteoblast-like cells. A promising scaffold for the engineering of bone tissue is thus proposed, based on a strategy of marine by-products valorisation. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
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Review

Jump to: Research

Open AccessReview Bioactive Compounds from Marine Organisms: Potential for Bone Growth and Healing
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(9), 340; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16090340
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 10 September 2018 / Accepted: 11 September 2018 / Published: 18 September 2018
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Abstract
Marine organisms represent a highly diverse reserve of bioactives which could aid in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, including various musculoskeletal conditions. Osteoporosis in particular would benefit from a novel and effective marine-based treatment, due to its large disease burden
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Marine organisms represent a highly diverse reserve of bioactives which could aid in the treatment of a wide range of diseases, including various musculoskeletal conditions. Osteoporosis in particular would benefit from a novel and effective marine-based treatment, due to its large disease burden and the inefficiencies of current treatment options. Osteogenic bioactives have been isolated from many marine organisms, including nacre powder derived from molluscan shells and fucoidan—the sulphated polysaccharide commonly sourced from brown macroalgae. Such extracts and compounds are known to have a range of osteogenic effects, including stimulation of osteoblast activity and mineralisation, as well as suppression of osteoclast resorption. This review describes currently known soluble osteogenic extracts and compounds from marine invertebrates and algae, and assesses their preclinical potential. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
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Open AccessFeature PaperReview Blueprints for the Next Generation of Bioinspired and Biomimetic Mineralised Composites for Bone Regeneration
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(8), 288; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16080288
Received: 5 August 2018 / Revised: 16 August 2018 / Accepted: 17 August 2018 / Published: 20 August 2018
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Abstract
Coccolithophores are unicellular marine phytoplankton, which produce intricate, tightly regulated, exoskeleton calcite structures. The formation of biogenic calcite occurs either intracellularly, forming ‘wheel-like’ calcite plates, or extracellularly, forming ‘tiled-like’ plates known as coccoliths. Secreted coccoliths then self-assemble into multiple layers to form the
[...] Read more.
Coccolithophores are unicellular marine phytoplankton, which produce intricate, tightly regulated, exoskeleton calcite structures. The formation of biogenic calcite occurs either intracellularly, forming ‘wheel-like’ calcite plates, or extracellularly, forming ‘tiled-like’ plates known as coccoliths. Secreted coccoliths then self-assemble into multiple layers to form the coccosphere, creating a protective wall around the organism. The cell wall hosts a variety of unique species-specific inorganic morphologies that cannot be replicated synthetically. Although biomineralisation has been extensively studied, it is still not fully understood. It is becoming more apparent that biologically controlled mineralisation is still an elusive goal. A key question to address is how nature goes from basic building blocks to the ultrafine, highly organised structures found in coccolithophores. A better understanding of coccolithophore biomineralisation will offer new insight into biomimetic and bioinspired synthesis of advanced, functionalised materials for bone tissue regeneration. The purpose of this review is to spark new interest in biomineralisation and gain new insight into coccolithophores from a material science perspective, drawing on existing knowledge from taxonomists, geologists, palaeontologists and phycologists. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
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Open AccessReview Marine Skeletons: Towards Hard Tissue Repair and Regeneration
Mar. Drugs 2018, 16(7), 225; https://doi.org/10.3390/md16070225
Received: 10 May 2018 / Revised: 25 June 2018 / Accepted: 28 June 2018 / Published: 2 July 2018
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Abstract
Musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly have significantly increased due to the increase in an ageing population. The treatment of these diseases necessitates surgical procedures, including total joint replacements such as hip and knee joints. Over the years a number of treatment options have
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Musculoskeletal disorders in the elderly have significantly increased due to the increase in an ageing population. The treatment of these diseases necessitates surgical procedures, including total joint replacements such as hip and knee joints. Over the years a number of treatment options have been specifically established which are either permanent or use temporary natural materials such as marine skeletons that possess unique architectural structure and chemical composition for the repair and regeneration of bone tissue. This review paper will give an overview of presently used materials and marine structures for hard tissue repair and regeneration, drugs of marine origin and other marine products which show potential for musculoskeletal treatment. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Marine Organisms for Bone Regeneration)
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