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Special Issue "Supercritical Fluid Extraction"

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A special issue of International Journal of Molecular Sciences (ISSN 1422-0067). This special issue belongs to the section "Green Chemistry".

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (31 January 2012)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Kazuhiro Tamura

Department of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Division of Material Sciences, Graduate School of Natural Science and Technology, Kanazawa University, Kakuma-machi, Kanazawa 920-1192, Japan

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Supercritical fluid extraction is a novel, unique and innovative technology suitable for extraction, fractionation and purification of a variety of natural and benign products in place of conventional solvent extraction. Supercritical fluid can facilitate mass transfer of the extracts due to the physical properties such as higher diffusivity and lower viscosity and surface tension. Mainly supercritical carbon dioxide has been used to extract the compounds that are low volatile and susceptible to thermal degradation and decomposition in various processes in food and pharmaceutical industries.

This special issue will focus on research topics such as solubility, diffusion, mass transfer, extract properties, extraction recovery and yield, processing, and their relevant modeling and so on. Novel application research as well as basic research with high quality concerning supercritical extraction will be presented to develop environmental friendly and green processes towards the sustainable society.

Prof. Dr. Kazuhiro Tamura
Guest Editor

Keywords

  • supercritical carbon dioxide
  • purification
  • extraction
  • fractionation
  • green and sustainable technology
  • food
  • pharmaceutical

Published Papers (3 papers)

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Research

Open AccessArticle Supercritical Fluid Extraction of Bacterial and Archaeal Lipid Biomarkers from Anaerobically Digested Sludge
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(3), 3022-3037; doi:10.3390/ijms13033022
Received: 19 December 2011 / Revised: 23 February 2012 / Accepted: 27 February 2012 / Published: 6 March 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (863 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial [...] Read more.
Supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) was used in the analysis of bacterial respiratory quinone (RQ), bacterial phospholipid fatty acid (PLFA), and archaeal phospholipid ether lipid (PLEL) from anaerobically digested sludge. Bacterial RQ were determined using ultra performance liquid chromatography (UPLC). Determination of bacterial PLFA and archaeal PLEL was simultaneously performed using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The effects of pressure, temperature, and modifier concentration on the total amounts of RQ, PLFA, and PLEL were investigated by 23 experiments with five settings chosen for each variable. The optimal extraction conditions that were obtained through a multiple-response optimization included a pressure of 23.6 MPa, temperature of 77.6 °C, and 10.6% (v/v) of methanol as the modifier. Thirty nine components of microbial lipid biomarkers were identified in the anaerobically digested sludge. Overall, the SFE method proved to be more effective, rapid, and quantitative for simultaneously extracting bacterial and archaeal lipid biomarkers, compared to conventional organic solvent extraction. This work shows the potential application of SFE as a routine method for the comprehensive analysis of microbial community structures in environmental assessments using the lipid biomarkers profile. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
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Open AccessArticle Supercritical Carbon Dioxide Extraction of the Oak Silkworm (Antheraea pernyi) Pupal Oil: Process Optimization and Composition Determination
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(2), 2354-2367; doi:10.3390/ijms13022354
Received: 22 November 2011 / Revised: 19 January 2012 / Accepted: 13 February 2012 / Published: 21 February 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (601 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow [...] Read more.
Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2) extraction of oil from oak silkworm pupae was performed in the present research. Response surface methodology (RSM) was applied to optimize the parameters of SC-CO2 extraction, including extraction pressure, temperature, time and CO2 flow rate on the yield of oak silkworm pupal oil (OSPO). The optimal extraction condition for oil yield within the experimental range of the variables researched was at 28.03 MPa, 1.83 h, 35.31 °C and 20.26 L/h as flow rate of CO2. Under this condition, the oil yield was predicted to be 26.18%. The oak silkworm pupal oil contains eight fatty acids, and is rich in unsaturated fatty acids and α-linolenic acid (ALA), accounting for 77.29% and 34.27% in the total oil respectively. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
Open AccessArticle Fractionation of Whey Protein Isolate with Supercritical Carbon Dioxide—Process Modeling and Cost Estimation
Int. J. Mol. Sci. 2012, 13(1), 240-259; doi:10.3390/ijms13010240
Received: 28 September 2011 / Revised: 13 December 2011 / Accepted: 14 December 2011 / Published: 27 December 2011
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (478 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 20% α-LA and [...] Read more.
An economical and environmentally friendly whey protein fractionation process was developed using supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO2) as an acid to produce enriched fractions of α-lactalbumin (α-LA) and β-lactoglobulin (β-LG) from a commercial whey protein isolate (WPI) containing 20% α-LA and 55% β-LG, through selective precipitation of α-LA. Pilot-scale experiments were performed around the optimal parameter range (T = 60 to 65 °C, P = 8 to 31 MPa, C = 5 to 15% (w/w) WPI) to quantify the recovery rates of the individual proteins and the compositions of both fractions as a function of processing conditions. Mass balances were calculated in a process flow-sheet to design a large-scale, semi-continuous process model using SuperproDesigner® software. Total startup and production costs were estimated as a function of processing parameters, product yield and purity. Temperature, T, pressure, P, and concentration, C, showed conflicting effects on equipment costs and the individual precipitation rates of the two proteins, affecting the quantity, quality, and production cost of the fractions considerably. The highest α-LA purity, 61%, with 80% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction, was obtained at T = 60 °C, C = 5% WPI, P = 8.3 MPa, with a production cost of $8.65 per kilogram of WPI treated. The most profitable conditions resulted in 57%-pure α-LA, with 71% α-LA recovery in the solid fraction and 89% β-LG recovery in the soluble fraction, and production cost of $5.43 per kilogram of WPI treated at T = 62 °C, C = 10% WPI and P = 5.5 MPa. The two fractions are ready-to-use, new food ingredients with a pH of 6.7 and contain no residual acid or chemical contaminants. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Supercritical Fluid Extraction)
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