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Topical Collection "Aging and Public Health"

Editors

Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Matthew Lee Smith

Center for Population Health and Aging, Texas A&M University, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M School of Public Health, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-979-436-9518
Fax: +1-979-458-4264
Collection Editor
Prof. Dr. Marcia G. Ory

Center for Population Health and Aging, Texas A&M University, 212 Adriance Lab Road, TAMU 1266, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Strategic Partnerships and Initiatives, Texas A&M Health Science Center, College Station, TX 77843, USA Department of Environmental and Occupational Health, Texas A&M School of Public Health, College Station, TX 77843, USA
Website | E-Mail
Phone: +1-979-458-1373
Fax: +1-979-458-4264

Topical Collection Information

Dear Colleagues,

With the world-wide growth of the older adult population, there is increased concern about the impact of aging-related consequences on health and healthcare utilization. While individuals can encounter many problems as they age, two of the most pressing issues facing older adults are falls and chronic disease. The direct and indirect costs of these public health issues are enormous and growing. Many of the known risks for falls are associated with inadequate disease management (e.g., physical activity, medication, communication with healthcare providers), which makes strategies to address these issues highly interrelated. Over the past decade, there has been an emergence of large initiatives to reduce the burden of falls and chronic conditions that draw upon evidence-based programs (EBP) and practices in community, clinical, and industry settings. Often these efforts are translational in nature and integrate technology. Additional research is needed to document the reach and effectiveness of these interventions and advance their implementation, dissemination, and sustainability. 

This Topical Collection features a spectrum of articles about health among older adults. Articles being solicited include those that address: (1) health-related risk factors; (2) physical, mental, and social aspects of health and well-being; (3) interventions and programs influencing health status, functioning, and quality of life; and (4) strategies to engage older adults in healthy behaviors, enhance the delivery of EBP, develop infrastructure and networks to support healthy aging. 

This Topical Collection will advance healthy aging by contributing to what is known about health risk among older adults and opportunities to promote population health and aging. Further, this Topical Collection will inform practice, policy, and research needed to develop and nurture systems of support for evidence-based programs and strategies.

Prof. Dr. Matthew Lee Smith
Prof. Dr. Marcia G. Ory
Collection Editors

Manuscript Submission Information

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Submitted manuscripts should not have been published previously, nor be under consideration for publication elsewhere (except conference proceedings papers). All manuscripts are thoroughly refereed through a single-blind peer-review process. A guide for authors and other relevant information for submission of manuscripts is available on the Instructions for Authors page. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health is an international peer-reviewed open access monthly journal published by MDPI.

Please visit the Instructions for Authors page before submitting a manuscript. The Article Processing Charge (APC) for publication in this open access journal is 1600 CHF (Swiss Francs). Submitted papers should be well formatted and use good English. Authors may use MDPI's English editing service prior to publication or during author revisions.

Keywords

  • Aging
  • Public health
  • Behavioral intervention
  • Fall prevention
  • Physical activity
  • Mental health
  • Medication management
  • Aging-in-place
  • Built environment
  • Technology
  • Translational research
  • Dissemination
  • Implementation
  • Evidence-based programs
  • Quality of life
  • Chronic disease management

Published Papers (22 papers)

2018

Jump to: 2017

Open AccessArticle The Effect of Nordic Walking Training Combined with Vitamin D Supplementation on Postural Control and Muscle Strength in Elderly People—A Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1951; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091951
Received: 26 July 2018 / Revised: 2 September 2018 / Accepted: 5 September 2018 / Published: 7 September 2018
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Abstract
Nordic Walking (NW) and Vitamin D concentration (Vit D) alone have been shown to contribute to the health and performance of elderly people. However, the interaction between these two factors has yet to be explored. In this study 42 women over 60 years
[...] Read more.
Nordic Walking (NW) and Vitamin D concentration (Vit D) alone have been shown to contribute to the health and performance of elderly people. However, the interaction between these two factors has yet to be explored. In this study 42 women over 60 years of age (69.02 ± 5.56 years) were recruited and divided in two NW groups: a high-intensity interval training group (HI-NW) and a moderate-intensity continuous training group (MI-NW). Individuals from each group completed a 12-week NW training program (3 times a week/2 hours) combined with randomized Vitamin D supplementation (HD = high dose: 4000 IU/day or LD = low dose: 800 IU/day). Body composition, postural control, muscle strength and Vitamin D serum concentration were measured twice; before and after the intervention. To investigate the interaction between supplementation and training a mixed-design analysis of variance (ANOVA) was performed. The HI-NW group, regardless of supplementation dose, increased their Vit D and elbow torque performance. On the other hand, in the MI-NW group the same Vit D outcome was seen only with HD supplementation and was also associated with increased leg muscle mass. In conclusion, beneficial effects of both HI-NW and MI-NW training regimes were seen. The impact of the dose supplementation on Vit D and body composition was related to the type of NW training. Full article
Open AccessArticle Associations among Elder Abuse, Depression and PTSD in South Korean Older Adults
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(9), 1948; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15091948
Received: 8 August 2018 / Revised: 4 September 2018 / Accepted: 4 September 2018 / Published: 6 September 2018
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Abstract
Increasing attention is being placed on the prevalence of elder abuse and its impact on mental health. This study conducted a survey of 172 elderly people in South Korea to determine the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationships involving elder abuse, depression
[...] Read more.
Increasing attention is being placed on the prevalence of elder abuse and its impact on mental health. This study conducted a survey of 172 elderly people in South Korea to determine the prevalence of elder abuse and the relationships involving elder abuse, depression and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD). Participants completed a battery of self-report questionnaires, which included the Korean Geriatric Depression Screening Scale (KGDS) and Impact of Event Scale-Revised Korean version (IES-R-K). Descriptive analyses were conducted to examine the frequency of specific forms of abuse. Logistic regression models were estimated to identify the factors that contributed to risk of abuse exposure and the relationship between exposure and PTSD or depression. The results indicated around 22% of the participants reported abuse exposure, which most commonly included being refused physical contact, verbal threats, and/or being excluded from decision-making about personal issues. Low education and being unmarried, separated or divorced was associated with an increased risk of abuse exposure. There were strong associations between elder abuse and PTSD symptoms, while comparable relationships with depression were weaker and were not robust to the inclusion of control variables. The findings provided empirical support for the relationship between abuse experiences of the elderly and poor mental health and raise important issues for the mental health care of the elderly. Full article
Open AccessArticle Use of an E2SFCA Method to Measure and Analyse Spatial Accessibility to Medical Services for Elderly People in Wuhan, China
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1503; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071503
Received: 16 May 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 13 July 2018 / Published: 17 July 2018
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Abstract
Current studies on measuring the accessibility of medical services for the elderly (AMSE) have ignored the potential competition among supply and demand and the distance decay laws. Hence, an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method (i.e., the road network-based Gaussian 2SFCA method)
[...] Read more.
Current studies on measuring the accessibility of medical services for the elderly (AMSE) have ignored the potential competition among supply and demand and the distance decay laws. Hence, an enhanced two-step floating catchment area (E2SFCA) method (i.e., the road network-based Gaussian 2SFCA method) is proposed to calculate AMSE scores after considering different types of roads, including urban rail transit, freeways, major roads, minor roads and rural roads. Based on the first National Geographic Conditions Monitoring (NGCM) data, this study took Wuhan, China, as a case study and assessed the variation of AMSE using two different threshold times (i.e., Platinum Ten and Golden Hour). Next, global (i.e., sensitivity and hot spot analysis) and local analyses (i.e., three regional area internal comparisons) of AMSE scores were conducted to accurately identify details in the variation of spatial accessibility. It was observed that the E2SFCA method could be easily applied to measure AMSE. The results showed that 48.63% of the elderly population in Wuhan had a higher or the highest level of medical accessibility in “Platinum Ten”, while 72.97% had a higher or the highest level in the “Golden Hour”, and hot spots of AMSE scores were located in central urban areas and presented an enclosure structure using both threshold travel times, which could provide guidance to governments or planners on issues of spatial planning and identifying elderly medical services shortage areas. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of a Positive Photo Appreciation Program on Depressive Mood in Older Adults: A Pilot Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(7), 1472; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15071472
Received: 20 June 2018 / Revised: 10 July 2018 / Accepted: 10 July 2018 / Published: 12 July 2018
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Abstract
Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65–84 years, assigned
[...] Read more.
Safer and more effective programs are required to cope with an increasing number of older people with depression. Hence, we developed the Positive Photo Appreciation (PPA) program. A three-month pilot randomized controlled trial was conducted with healthy Japanese individuals aged 65–84 years, assigned to a PPA group (n = 28) or Photo Correspondence Education (PCE) (control group) (n = 27). We used the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D) score as the primary outcome measure. Secondary outcome measures, among others, were cognitive function and positive emotion. Data collected at baseline and post-intervention were analyzed using a linear mixed-effect model. Over 80% of the participants in the PPA group completed and were satisfied with the program. Compared with the PCE group, the CES-D score in the PPA group significantly improved (main effect of group: t = −4.30, p < 0.001; interaction effect of group by time: t = 4.39, p < 0.001), with an effect size of d = 1.23. Additionally, a positive significant interaction effect of group by time was found in the Positive and Negative Affect Schedule (t = −2.33, p = 0.024). The PPA program might be promising for mitigating depressive mood in older adults. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Cross-Disciplinary Successful Aging Intervention and Evaluation: Comparison of Person-to-Person and Digital-Assisted Approaches
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 913; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050913
Received: 14 April 2018 / Revised: 29 April 2018 / Accepted: 2 May 2018 / Published: 4 May 2018
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Abstract
Background: Successful aging has been the paradigm of old-age life. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a cross-disciplinary intervention program using two approaches for community-based older adults in Taichung, Taiwan. Methods: The content of the intervention included
[...] Read more.
Background: Successful aging has been the paradigm of old-age life. The purpose of this study was to implement and evaluate a cross-disciplinary intervention program using two approaches for community-based older adults in Taichung, Taiwan. Methods: The content of the intervention included successful aging concepts and preparation, physical activity, chronic disease and health management, dietary and nutrition information, cognitive training, emotional awareness and coping skills, family relationship and resilience, legal concepts regarding financial protection, and Internet use. The traditional person-to-person (P2P) intervention approach was implemented among participants at urban centers, and the personal-and-digital (P&D) intervention approach was implemented among participants at rural centers; before the P&D group received the intervention, participants were assessed as the control group for comparison. Results: Healthy behavior and nutrition improved for the P2P group, although not significantly. Strategies for adapting to old age and reducing ineffective coping were significantly improved in the P2P group. The ability to search for health information improved in the P&D group, and knowledge of finance-related law increased in the P2P group. Conclusion: A continuous, well-designed and evidence-based intervention program is beneficial for improving the health of older adults, or at least delaying its decline. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Relationship between Diabetes Mellitus and Respiratory Function in Patients Eligible for Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 907; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050907
Received: 12 March 2018 / Revised: 27 April 2018 / Accepted: 30 April 2018 / Published: 3 May 2018
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Abstract
Introduction: Spirometry performed prior to surgery provides information on the types of lung disorders in patients. The purpose of this study was to look for a relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and spirometry parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in
[...] Read more.
Introduction: Spirometry performed prior to surgery provides information on the types of lung disorders in patients. The purpose of this study was to look for a relationship between the prevalence of diabetes and spirometry parameters. Material and Methods: The study was conducted in patients with coronary artery disease who were eligible for an isolated coronary artery bypass graft in 2013. The study group included 367 patients (287 men and 80 women) aged 68.7 ± 8.4 years. They were divided into those with diagnosed diabetes (group I, n = 138, 37.6%) and without diabetes (group II, n = 229, 62.4%). Spirometry tests were performed on the day of admission to the hospital. Results: Patients with diabetes (group I) had a significantly higher body mass index than those without diabetes (group II). Spirometry tests also showed that patients with diabetes had statistically significantly lower forced vital capacity (FVC) and forced expiratory volume in 1 s (FEV1.0). Both FVC and FEV1.0 were also statistically significantly lower for overweight and obese individuals in group I than those in group II. Conclusion: Patients with diabetes eligible for coronary artery bypass grafting with concurrent overweight or obesity are more likely to have lower spirometry parameters than those without diabetes. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Impact of a Translated Disease Self-Management Program on Employee Health and Productivity: Six-Month Findings from a Randomized Controlled Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(5), 851; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15050851
Received: 20 March 2018 / Revised: 9 April 2018 / Accepted: 19 April 2018 / Published: 25 April 2018
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Abstract
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part
[...] Read more.
Disease management is gaining importance in workplace health promotion given the aging workforce and rising chronic disease prevalence. The Chronic Disease Self-Management Program (CDSMP) is an effective intervention widely offered in diverse community settings; however, adoption remains low in workplace settings. As part of a larger NIH-funded randomized controlled trial, this study examines the effectiveness of a worksite-tailored version of CDSMP (wCDSMP [n = 72]) relative to CDSMP (‘Usual Care’ [n = 109]) to improve health and work performance among employees with one or more chronic conditions. Multiple-group latent-difference score models with sandwich estimators were fitted to identify changes from baseline to 6-month follow-up. Overall, participants were primarily female (87%), non-Hispanic white (62%), and obese (73%). On average, participants were age 48 (range: 23–72) and self-reported 3.25 chronic conditions (range: 1–16). The most commonly reported conditions were high cholesterol (45%), high blood pressure (45%), anxiety/emotional/mental health condition (26%), and diabetes (25%). Among wCDSMP participants, significant improvements were observed for physically unhealthy days (uΔ = −2.07, p = 0.018), fatigue (uΔ = −2.88, p = 0.002), sedentary behavior (uΔ = −4.49, p = 0.018), soda/sugar beverage consumption (uΔ = −0.78, p = 0.028), and fast food intake (uΔ = −0.76, p = 0.009) from baseline to follow-up. Significant improvements in patient–provider communication (uΔ = 0.46, p = 0.031) and mental work limitations (uΔ = −8.89, p = 0.010) were also observed from baseline to follow-up. Relative to Usual Care, wCDSMP participants reported significantly larger improvements in fatigue, physical activity, soda/sugar beverage consumption, and mental work limitations (p < 0.05). The translation of Usual Care (content and format) has potential to improve health among employees with chronic conditions and increase uptake in workplace settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Elderly Perceived Meanings and Values of Virtual Reality Leisure Activities: A Means-End Chain Approach
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 663; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040663
Received: 15 January 2018 / Revised: 26 March 2018 / Accepted: 2 April 2018 / Published: 3 April 2018
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Abstract
This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun,
[...] Read more.
This study uses means-end chain (MEC) techniques to examine the awareness, decision-making procedure, and personal values of the elderly with regard to virtual reality leisure activities. The results of the study show that elderly respondents value virtual reality leisure activities that are fun, safe, and easy. In terms of outcome benefits, elderly respondents value feeling physically and mentally healthy, firsthand experience, and satisfied curiosity. In value terms, elderly respondents hope that their chosen virtual reality leisure activities improve not only their relationships with others, but also their enjoyment, quality of life, and sense of belonging. The results show that, while consumers with different awarenesses of virtual reality leisure activities have different decision-making processes, they share creating “good memories” as the terminal value with the most significant effect. This presents a potential opportunity to promote virtual reality leisure activities. Relevant bodies or enterprises can seek to create good memories in consumers by developing activities that are safe and fun, promote good health, and provide good service, thereby attracting the interest of elderly consumers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Effect of Leisure Activity Diversity and Exercise Time on the Prevention of Depression in the Middle-Aged and Elderly Residents of Taiwan
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 654; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040654
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 22 March 2018 / Accepted: 29 March 2018 / Published: 1 April 2018
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Abstract
Previous studies have confirmed that activity participation is beneficial to mental health, but few studies focus on older adults’ depression. Based on the theory of social integration, this study examined the effects of leisure activity diversity and exercise time on depression in late
[...] Read more.
Previous studies have confirmed that activity participation is beneficial to mental health, but few studies focus on older adults’ depression. Based on the theory of social integration, this study examined the effects of leisure activity diversity and exercise time on depression in late adulthood. Subjects in the 2011 Survey of Health and Living Status of the Middle-Aged and Elderly in Taiwan were extracted. A series of logistic regressions were conducted to discern factors related to the odds of having depression. Among study subjects (N = 3727; age ≥ 58), 20.9% indicated an inclination of having depression (CESD-10 score ≥ 8). This study found that participating in diverse leisure activities and longer exercise time decreases older adults’ risk of having depression. Additionally, the results confirmed that depression is positively correlated with chronic diseases. Consequently, efforts should be continually spent on encouraging older adults’ participation in activities to reduce the prevalence of depression. Full article
Open AccessArticle Importance of Footwear for Preventing Xerosis and Hyperkeratosis in Older People with Psychiatric Disorders Living in an Institution
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(4), 584; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15040584
Received: 16 February 2018 / Revised: 21 March 2018 / Accepted: 22 March 2018 / Published: 24 March 2018
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Abstract
Few studies have focused on the relation between the use and characteristics of footwear and the presence of foot lesions in people with psychiatric disorders. This work analyzes the influence of different footwear habits on the presence of deformities and ungueal and dermal
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Few studies have focused on the relation between the use and characteristics of footwear and the presence of foot lesions in people with psychiatric disorders. This work analyzes the influence of different footwear habits on the presence of deformities and ungueal and dermal pathologies of the foot of institutionalized people with psychiatric disorders compared to people without these disorders. A transversal and observational study was conducted on 107 participants, divided into two groups who have used different types of shoes throughout their lives. The control group comprised 63 autonomous people who mainly use leather footwear and a study group of 44 institutionalized people with intellectual disabilities and psychiatric disorders who mainly use textile footwear. There were significant differences between populations. The group with psychiatric disorders presented more xerosis and hyperkeratosis. Footwear with inappropriate characteristics is a possible causal agent of skin alterations. Wearing footwear with quality textile uppers, e.g., fabric or felt, could influence the appearance of these alterations. Leather footwear is recommended for institutionalized people to reduce symptoms of xerosis and improve their quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle Internet Use and Psychological Well-Being at Advanced Age: Evidence from the English Longitudinal Study of Aging
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 480; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030480
Received: 2 February 2018 / Revised: 4 March 2018 / Accepted: 7 March 2018 / Published: 9 March 2018
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Abstract
This work explores the connection between psychological well-being and Internet use in older adults. The study is based on a sample of 2314 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The subjects, aged 50 years and older, were interviewed every two years
[...] Read more.
This work explores the connection between psychological well-being and Internet use in older adults. The study is based on a sample of 2314 participants in the English Longitudinal Study of Aging. The subjects, aged 50 years and older, were interviewed every two years over the 2006–2007 to 2014–2015 period. The connection between the use of Internet/Email and the main dimensions of psychological well-being (evaluative, hedonic and eudaimonic) was analyzed by means of three generalized estimating equation models that were fitted on 2-year lagged repeated measurements. The outcome variables, the scores on three well-being scales, were explained in terms of Internet/Email use, controlling for covariates that included health and socioeconomic indicators. The results support the existence of a direct relationship between Internet/Email use and psychological well-being. The connection between the main predictor and the score of the participants on the scale used to measure the eudaimonic aspect was positive and statistically significant at conventional levels (p-value: 0.015). However, the relevance of digital literacy on the evaluative and the hedonic components could not be confirmed (p-values for evaluative and hedonic dimensions were 0.078 and 0.192, respectively). Full article
Open AccessArticle Community Readiness for the Promotion of Physical Activity in Older Adults—A Cross-Sectional Comparison of Rural and Urban Communities
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(3), 453; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15030453
Received: 5 February 2018 / Revised: 24 February 2018 / Accepted: 1 March 2018 / Published: 6 March 2018
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Abstract
Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures
[...] Read more.
Communities can play an important role in delivering public health programs to older adults, but they differ in the provision of local structures and resources. The community readiness (CR) approach applies a stage model of change to the community level and analyzes structures and the degree of willingness to take action on a health issue. This study compared the CR regarding the promotion of physical activity as part of healthy ageing for older adults among urban and rural communities in North-West Germany. A cross-sectional CR assessment with key respondents in 23 municipalities (11 urban and 12 rural communities) was conducted using a semi-structured interview. Interviews were scored across the five CR dimensions and global CR score was calculated (scores between 1 = no awareness and 9 = professionalization). Wilcoxon rank-sum test and hierarchical regression models were used to compare urban and rural communities. In total, 118 interviews were conducted (response rate 69.8%). On average, the communities showed moderate CR scores (4.9 ± 0.3; Range: 4.3–5.4; preplanning or preparation phase). The global CR score was slightly higher in rural than in urban communities (regression coefficient = 0.29, 95% confidence interval (CI): −0.02–0.59). The rural communities showed significantly higher CR scores in the ‘Knowledge of efforts’ dimension (0.70, 95% CI: 0.26–1.14) and in the ‘Knowledge of the issue’ (0.37, 95% CI: 0.04–0.70). Rural communities display a slightly higher CR level than urban communities. In the next step, targeted capacity building activities will be initiated among communities with low CR levels. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Evaluation of a Computer-Tailored Healthy Ageing Intervention to Promote Physical Activity among Single Older Adults with a Chronic Disease
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 346; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020346
Received: 17 January 2018 / Revised: 17 January 2018 / Accepted: 5 February 2018 / Published: 15 February 2018
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Abstract
This study explores the effectiveness of the Active Plus65 intervention designed to stimulate physical activity among single older adults with a chronic physical impairment. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study was performed. The intervention group (n = 411; mean age = 76.75; SD
[...] Read more.
This study explores the effectiveness of the Active Plus65 intervention designed to stimulate physical activity among single older adults with a chronic physical impairment. A quasi-experimental pre-test post-test study was performed. The intervention group (n = 411; mean age = 76.75; SD = 7.75) was assessed at baseline, three months, and six months. Data of comparable older adults who completed the original Active Plus intervention served as reference group (n = 87; mean age = 74.36; SD = 6.26). Multilevel regression analyses were applied: outcome measures were weekly minutes of moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and days per week with at least 30 min of MVPA. Although Active Plus65 did not outperform the original intervention, in itself Active Plus65 effectuated a significant increase in the weekly minutes of MVPA (B = 208.26; p < 0.001; Effect Size (ES) = 0.45) and in the days per week with sufficient MVPA (B = 1.20; p < 0.001; ES = 0.61) after three months. After six months, it effectuated a significant increase in the days per week with sufficient MVPA (B = 0.67; p = 0.001; ES = 0.34) but not for the weekly minutes of MVPA (p = 0.745). As Active Plus65 increased MVPA at three months with a higher ES than average interventions for this vulnerable target group, it potentially makes an interesting intervention. Further development should focus on long-term maintenance of effects. Full article
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Open AccessArticle The Role of Motivation to Reduce Obesity among Elderly People: Response to Priming Temptation in Obese Individuals
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 244; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020244
Received: 19 December 2017 / Revised: 26 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 1 February 2018
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Abstract
The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may
[...] Read more.
The risk of obesity-related disorders is increased among the elderly, so changing eating habits can be an important element of prevention. The main aim of this article is to consider whether looking at pictures that present either fattening food or healthy food may motivate elderly people to change their nutrition habits. Might priming different kinds of food influence the attractiveness of the food for people in late adulthood undergoing obesity therapy? Based on priming theories, we analysed the effects of the conscious processing of stimuli associated with dietary habits in individuals aged with BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2. Our experiments confirmed the influence of a higher-priority goal of “slimming” on the perception and internalization of nutrition-related stimuli. In response to such stimuli, individuals who are actively involved in weight reduction and health-oriented programs use strategies for resisting temptation and to effectively “slim”. We present our findings in the context of their theoretical background and practical application. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Use of an Integrated Research-Practice Partnership to Improve Outcomes of a Community-Based Strength-Training Program for Older Adults: Reach and Effect of Lifelong Improvements through Fitness Together (LIFT)
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 237; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020237
Received: 30 December 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2018 / Accepted: 25 January 2018 / Published: 31 January 2018
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (528 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
Only 17% of older adults meet the recommendations for two days of full body strength training that is associated with improved functional fitness; reduced risk of falls; and reduced morbidity and mortality rates. Community-based interventions are recommended as they provide supportive infrastructure to
[...] Read more.
Only 17% of older adults meet the recommendations for two days of full body strength training that is associated with improved functional fitness; reduced risk of falls; and reduced morbidity and mortality rates. Community-based interventions are recommended as they provide supportive infrastructure to reach older adults and impact strength training behaviors. Scalability and sustainability of these interventions is directly linked with setting-level buy-in. Adapting an intervention through an integrated research–practice partnership may improve individual and setting-level outcomes. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the initial reach and effect of a locally adapted, health educator-led strength-training intervention; Lifelong Improvements through Fitness Together (LIFT). LIFT was compared to an evidence-based exercise program, Stay Strong; Stay Healthy (SSSH). Intervention dose and mode were the same for LIFT and SSSH, but LIFT included behavioral change strategies. Older adult functional fitness was assessed before and after the 8-week strength training intervention. Health educators who delivered LIFT and SSSH were able to reach 80 and 33 participants, respectively. Participants in LIFT were able to significantly improve in all functional fitness measures whereas SSSH participants were only able to significantly improve in 5 of the 7 functional fitness measures. In conclusion, this study provides preliminary evidence that the locally adapted program reached more individuals and had improvements in functional fitness. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effectiveness of a Lifestyle Intervention on Social Support, Self-Efficacy, and Physical Activity among Older Adults: Evaluation of Texercise Select
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 234; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020234
Received: 4 December 2017 / Revised: 9 January 2018 / Accepted: 23 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Despite the well-recognized benefits of physical activity across the life course, older adults are more inactive than other age groups. The current study examines the effects of Texercise Select participation on self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Secondarily, this study examined
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Despite the well-recognized benefits of physical activity across the life course, older adults are more inactive than other age groups. The current study examines the effects of Texercise Select participation on self-reported sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous physical activity. Secondarily, this study examined intervention effects on two potential facilitators of physical activity: (1) self-efficacy for being more physically active and (2) social support received for physical activity. This study used a non-equivalent group design with self-reported surveys administered at baseline, three-month (immediate post for cases) and six-month follow-ups for the intervention (n = 163) and a comparison group (n = 267). Multivariable mixed model analyses were conducted controlling for age, sex, race, ethnicity, education, comorbid conditions, and site. Among the intervention group, the program had significant immediate effects on most primary outcomes (p < 0.05) at three months. Furthermore, significant improvements were observed for all physical activity intensity levels at six months (p < 0.05). The reduction in sedentary behavior and increases in all physical activity intensity levels were significantly greater from baseline to three-month and baseline to six-month follow-ups among intervention group participants relative to those in the comparison group. This study confirms the effectiveness of Texercise Select to reduce sedentary behavior and improve physicality, supporting the intervention’s robustness as a scalable and sustainable evidence-based program. It also counters negative stereotypes that older adults are not interested in attending multi-modal lifestyle intervention programs nor able to make health behavior changes that can improve health and overall functioning. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Association between Social Activities and Cognitive Function among the Elderly in China: A Cross-Sectional Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(2), 231; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15020231
Received: 20 December 2017 / Revised: 15 January 2018 / Accepted: 29 January 2018 / Published: 30 January 2018
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Abstract
Participation in social activities is one of important factors for older adults’ health. The present study aims to examine the cross-sectional association between social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. A total of 8966 individuals aged 60 and older from the 2015
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Participation in social activities is one of important factors for older adults’ health. The present study aims to examine the cross-sectional association between social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. A total of 8966 individuals aged 60 and older from the 2015 China Health and Retirement Longitudinal Study were obtained for this study. Telephone interviews of cognitive status, episodic memory, and visuospatial abilities were assessed by questionnaire. We used the sum of all three of the above measures to represent the respondent’s cognitive status as a whole. Types and frequencies of participation in social groups were used to measure social activities. Multiple linear regression analysis was used to explore the relationship between social activities and cognitive function. After adjustment for demographics, smoking, drinking, depression, hypertension, diabetes, basic activities of daily living, instrumental activities of daily living, and self-rated health, multiple linear regression analysis revealed that interaction with friends, participating in hobby groups, and sports groups were associated with better cognitive function among both men and women (p < 0.05); doing volunteer work was associated with better cognitive function among women but not among men (p < 0.05). These findings suggest that there is a cross-sectional association between participation in social activities and cognitive function among Chinese elderly. Longitudinal studies are needed to examine the effects of social activities on cognitive function. Full article
Open AccessArticle Restricted Social Engagement among Adults Living with Chronic Conditions
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2018, 15(1), 158; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph15010158
Received: 13 December 2017 / Revised: 6 January 2018 / Accepted: 15 January 2018 / Published: 19 January 2018
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Abstract
Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults
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Background: Social engagement is key to health and quality of life. Little is known about social engagement patterns of middle-aged and older adults who live with one or more chronic illnesses. This study investigated social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions and factors associated with these restrictions. Methods: Cross-sectional representative data from the National Council on Aging Chronic Care Survey were examined for relationships between social engagement restrictions and chronic conditions, health status, support, quality of life implications, self-care barriers, caregiving, and demographics. Associations were tested using bivariate analyses and binary logistic regression. Results: Participants were 793 middle-aged (age 44–64) and older adults (age 65+) with one or more chronic conditions. Factors associated with social engagement restrictions included having higher education, receiving care, having more physician visits and hospitalizations, being disabled, being unemployed, and having higher Emotional and Physical Problems Scale scores. Conclusions: Findings reveal the prevalence of social engagement restrictions among middle-aged and older adults with chronic conditions. Results highlight the importance of promoting research, assessments, and interventions to increase social engagement among this aging population. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Grip Strength as an Indicator of Health-Related Quality of Life in Old Age—A Pilot Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1447; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121447
Received: 11 October 2017 / Revised: 21 November 2017 / Accepted: 22 November 2017 / Published: 24 November 2017
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Abstract
Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals
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Over the last century life expectancy has increased dramatically nearly all over the world. This dramatic absolute and relative increase of the old aged people component of the population has influenced not only population structure but also has dramatic implications for the individuals and public health services. The aim of the present pilot study was to examine the impact of physical well-being assessed by hand grip strength and social factors estimated by social contact frequency on health-related quality of life among 22 men and 41 women ranging in age between 60 and 94 years. Physical well-being was estimated by hand grip strength, data concerning subjective wellbeing and health related quality of life were collected by personal interviews based on the WHOQOL-BREF questionnaires. Number of offspring and intergenerational contacts were not related significantly to health-related quality of life, while social contacts with non-relatives and hand grip strength in contrast had a significant positive impact on health related quality of life among old aged men and women. Physical well-being and in particular muscle strength—estimated by grip strength—may increase health-related quality of life and is therefore an important source for well-being during old age. Grip strength may be used as an indicator of health-related quality of life. Full article
Open AccessArticle FRED: Exergame to Prevent Dependence and Functional Deterioration Associated with Ageing. A Pilot Three-Week Randomized Controlled Clinical Trial
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(12), 1439; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14121439
Received: 1 October 2017 / Revised: 4 November 2017 / Accepted: 10 November 2017 / Published: 23 November 2017
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Abstract
Introduction: Frailty syndrome and advanced age may decrease the acceptance of illness and quality of life, and worsen patients’ existing health conditions, as well as leading to an increase in health care expenses. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reduce frailty
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Introduction: Frailty syndrome and advanced age may decrease the acceptance of illness and quality of life, and worsen patients’ existing health conditions, as well as leading to an increase in health care expenses. Purpose: The purpose of this study is to reduce frailty risk via the use of a FRED game which has been expressly designed and put together for the study. Materials and methods: A total of 40 frail volunteers with a score of <10 points in the short physical performance battery (SPPB) took part in a feasibility study in order to validate the FRED game. Following randomisation, the study group (20 subjects) took part in nine sessions of 20 min each over a three-week period. The control group (19 subjects) continued to lead their daily lives in the course of which they had no physical activity scheduled; Results: After three weeks and having taken part in nine physical activity sessions with the FRED game, 60% of subjects from the study group (12/20) obtained a score of ≥10 points at the end of the study, i.e., less risk of evidencing frailty. This result proved to be statistically significant (p < 0.001). The degree of compliance with and adherence to the game was confirmed by 100% attendance of the sessions. Discussion: Our findings support the hypothesis that FRED, an ad hoc designed exergame, significantly reduced the presence and severity of frailty in a sample of sedentary elders, thus potentially modifying their risk profile. Conclusions: The FRED game is a tool that shows a 99% certain improvement in the degree of frailty in frail elderly subjects. The effectiveness of the design of ad hoc games in a certain pathology or population group is therefore evidenced. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Comparison of Summer and Winter Objectively Measured Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults: Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility Reykjavik Study
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(10), 1268; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14101268
Received: 11 September 2017 / Revised: 12 October 2017 / Accepted: 18 October 2017 / Published: 21 October 2017
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Abstract
In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for
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In Iceland, there is a large variation in daylight between summer and winter. The aim of the study was to identify how this large variation influences physical activity (PA) and sedentary behavior (SB). Free living PA was measured by a waist-worn accelerometer for one week during waking hours in 138 community-dwelling older adults (61.1% women, 80.3 ± 4.9 years) during summer and winter months. In general, SB occupied about 75% of the registered wear-time and was highly correlated with age (β = 0.36). Although the differences were small, more time was spent during the summer in all PA categories, except for the moderate-to-vigorous PA (MVPA), and SB was reduced. More lifestyle PA (LSPA) was accumulated in ≥5-min bouts during summer than winter, especially among highly active participants. This information could be important for policy makers and health professionals working with older adults. Accounting for seasonal difference is necessary in analyzing SB and PA data. Full article
Open AccessReview Community Capacity Building for Physical Activity Promotion among Older Adults—A Literature Review
Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2017, 14(9), 1058; https://doi.org/10.3390/ijerph14091058
Received: 10 August 2017 / Revised: 7 September 2017 / Accepted: 11 September 2017 / Published: 13 September 2017
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Abstract
Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and
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Community-based interventions to promote physical activity (PA) among older adults are of high interest in health promotion since they promise to be effective strategies to reach this population group. Community capacity building, that is, the local promotion of knowledge, skills, commitment, structures, and leadership, is among the recommended core strategies. However, little guidance is provided on how to achieve a high degree of community capacity. This study aims to identify practical strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion among older adults (50 years or older) and to evaluate their success. A literature review was conducted using scientific databases (PsycInfo and Web of Sciences) and grey literature (national and international project databases), and 14 studies (16 articles) were identified. Five groups of capacity building strategies emerged from the literature: (1) building community coalitions and networks, (2) training of professionals, (3) training of laypersons, (4) strengthening competence and awareness in the target population, and (5) allocation of financial resources. All studies used more than one strategy. Coalition building and strengthening competence and awareness were most frequently used. Feasibility and acceptability of the capacity building strategies were demonstrated. However, intervention effects on PA behavior and other relevant outcomes were inconsistent. The one study that systematically compared different capacity building approaches did not find any evidence for beneficial effects of intensified capacity building. More rigorous research evaluating the efficacy of specific strategies to enhance community capacities for PA promotion is needed. Full article
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