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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis., Volume 4, Issue 3 (September 2017)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle A Multiparametric Approach Based on NT-proBNP, ST2, and Galectin3 for Stratifying One Year Prognosis of Chronic Heart Failure Outpatients
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 0009; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030009
Received: 31 May 2017 / Revised: 6 July 2017 / Accepted: 14 July 2017 / Published: 15 July 2017
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Abstract
Galectin-3 and ST2 are emerging biomarkers involved in myocardial fibrosis. We evaluate the relevance of a multiparametric biomarker approach based on increased serum levels of NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and ST2 in stratifying the prognosis of chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients. In 315 CHF outpatients
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Galectin-3 and ST2 are emerging biomarkers involved in myocardial fibrosis. We evaluate the relevance of a multiparametric biomarker approach based on increased serum levels of NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and ST2 in stratifying the prognosis of chronic heart failure (CHF) outpatients. In 315 CHF outpatients in stable clinical condition clinical and echocardiographic evaluations were performed. Routine chemistry and serum levels of NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and ST2 were also assessed. During a 12 month follow-up, cardiovascular death, and/or heart failure (HF) occurred in 64 patients. The presence of NT-proBNP, galectin-3, and ST2 were higher than the recommended cutoffs and were all associated with events at univariate Cox regression analysis, as well as in a multivariate analysis including the three biomarkers. When a score based on the number of biomarkers above the recommended cut-offs was used (in a range of 0–3), it was associated with events both with respect to the univariate (HR 2.96, 95% CI 2.21–3.95, p < 0.001, C-index 0.78) and the multivariate (HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.06–2.17, p: 0.023, C-index 0.87) analyses, after correction for the variables of a reference model. Our results suggest that an easy prognostic approach based on the combination of three biomarkers, although with partially-overlapping pathophysiological mechanisms, is able to identify patients with the highest risk of heart failure progression. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Heart Failure Pathogenesis and Management)
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Open AccessCommunication Phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 Differentially Regulate the Funny Current, If, in Mouse Sinoatrial Node Myocytes
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 10; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030010
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
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Abstract
Cardiac pacemaking, at rest and during the sympathetic fight-or-flight response, depends on cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) signaling in sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs). The cardiac “funny current” (If) is among the cAMP-sensitive effectors that drive pacemaking in SAMs. If is produced
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Cardiac pacemaking, at rest and during the sympathetic fight-or-flight response, depends on cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) signaling in sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs). The cardiac “funny current” (If) is among the cAMP-sensitive effectors that drive pacemaking in SAMs. If is produced by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive (HCN) channels. Voltage-dependent gating of HCN channels is potentiated by cAMP, which acts either by binding directly to the channels or by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which phosphorylates them. PKA activity is required for signaling between β adrenergic receptors (βARs) and HCN channels in SAMs but the mechanism that constrains cAMP signaling to a PKA-dependent pathway is unknown. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP and form cAMP signaling domains in other types of cardiomyocytes. Here we examine the role of PDEs in regulation of If in SAMs. If was recorded in whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments from acutely-isolated mouse SAMs in the absence or presence of PDE and PKA inhibitors, and before and after βAR stimulation. General PDE inhibition caused a PKA-independent depolarizing shift in the midpoint activation voltage (V1/2) of If at rest and removed the requirement for PKA in βAR-to-HCN signaling. PDE4 inhibition produced a similar PKA-independent depolarizing shift in the V1/2 of If at rest, but did not remove the requirement for PKA in βAR-to-HCN signaling. PDE3 inhibition produced PKA-dependent changes in If both at rest and in response to βAR stimulation. Our results suggest that PDE3 and PDE4 isoforms create distinct cAMP signaling domains that differentially constrain access of cAMP to HCN channels and establish the requirement for PKA in signaling between βARs and HCN channels in SAMs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling and the Cardiovascular System)
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Open AccessArticle Diagnostic Yield of Whole Exome Sequencing in Pediatric Dilated Cardiomyopathy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 11; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030011
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 2 August 2017 / Accepted: 4 August 2017 / Published: 8 August 2017
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Abstract
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive heart failure. DCM typically remains clinically silent until adulthood, yet symptomatic disease can develop in childhood. We sought to identify the genetic basis of pediatric DCM in 15 sporadic and three
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Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a heritable, genetically heterogeneous disorder characterized by progressive heart failure. DCM typically remains clinically silent until adulthood, yet symptomatic disease can develop in childhood. We sought to identify the genetic basis of pediatric DCM in 15 sporadic and three affected-siblings cases, comprised of 21 affected children (mean age, five years) whose parents had normal echocardiograms (mean age, 39 years). Twelve underwent cardiac transplantation and five died with severe heart failure. Parent-offspring whole exome sequencing (WES) data were filtered for rare, deleterious, de novo and recessive variants. In prior work, we reported de novo mutations in TNNT2 and RRAGC and compound heterozygous mutations in ALMS1 and TAF1A among four cases in our cohort. Here, de novo mutations in established DCM genes—RBM20, LMNA, TNNT2, and PRDM16—were identified among five additional cases. The RBM20 mutation was previously reported in familial DCM. An identical unreported LMNA mutation was identified in two unrelated cases, both harboring gene-specific defects in cardiomyocyte nuclear morphology. Collectively, WES had a 50% diagnostic yield in our cohort, providing an explanation for pediatric heart failure and enabling informed family planning. Research is ongoing to discover novel DCM genes among the remaining families. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessArticle Insights from Second-Line Treatments for Idiopathic Dilated Cardiomyopathy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 12; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030012
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 18 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 23 August 2017
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Abstract
Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an independent nosographic entity characterized by left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction leading to heart failure (HF). The idiopathic form of DCM (iDCM) occurs in the absence of coronaropathy or other known causes of DCM. Despite being different
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Background: Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is an independent nosographic entity characterized by left ventricular dilatation and contractile dysfunction leading to heart failure (HF). The idiopathic form of DCM (iDCM) occurs in the absence of coronaropathy or other known causes of DCM. Despite being different from other forms of HF for demographic, clinical, and prognostic features, its current pharmacological treatment does not significantly diverge. Methods: In this study we performed a Pubmed library search for placebo-controlled clinical investigations and a post-hoc analysis recruiting iDCM from 1985 to 2016. We searched for second-line pharmacologic treatments to reconsider drugs for iDCM management and pinpoint pathological mechanisms. Results: We found 33 clinical studies recruiting a total of 3392 patients of various durations and sizes, as well as studies that tested different drug classes (statins, pentoxifylline, inotropes). A metanalysis was unfeasible, although a statistical significance for changes upon treatment for molecular results, morphofunctional parameters, and clinical endpoints was reported. Statins appeared to be beneficial in light of their pleiotropic effects; inotropes might be tolerated more for longer times in iDCM compared to ischemic patients. General anti-inflammatory therapies do not significantly improve outcomes. Metabolic and growth modulation remain appealing fields to be investigated. Conclusions: The evaluation of drug effectiveness based on direct clinical benefit is an inductive method providing evidence-based insights. This backward approach sheds light on putative and underestimated pathologic mechanisms and thus therapeutic targets for iDCM management. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
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Review

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Open AccessReview Multiple Species Comparison of Cardiac Troponin T and Dystrophin: Unravelling the DNA behind Dilated Cardiomyopathy
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 8; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030008
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 1 July 2017 / Accepted: 5 July 2017 / Published: 7 July 2017
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Abstract
Animals have frequently been used as models for human disorders and mutations. Following advances in genetic testing and treatment options, and the decreasing cost of these technologies in the clinic, mutations in both companion and commercial animals are now being investigated. A recent
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Animals have frequently been used as models for human disorders and mutations. Following advances in genetic testing and treatment options, and the decreasing cost of these technologies in the clinic, mutations in both companion and commercial animals are now being investigated. A recent review highlighted the genes associated with both human and non-human dilated cardiomyopathy. Cardiac troponin T and dystrophin were observed to be associated with both human and turkey (troponin T) and canine (dystrophin) dilated cardiomyopathies. This review gives an overview of the work carried out in cardiac troponin T and dystrophin to date in both human and animal dilated cardiomyopathy. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessReview Midkine’s Role in Cardiac Pathology
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 13; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030013
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 19 August 2017 / Accepted: 19 August 2017 / Published: 24 August 2017
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Abstract
Midkine (MDK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is normally expressed in mid-gestational development mediating mesenchymal and epithelial interactions. As organisms age, expression of MDK diminishes; however, in adults, MDK expression is associated with acute and chronic pathologic conditions such as myocardial infarction
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Midkine (MDK) is a heparin-binding growth factor that is normally expressed in mid-gestational development mediating mesenchymal and epithelial interactions. As organisms age, expression of MDK diminishes; however, in adults, MDK expression is associated with acute and chronic pathologic conditions such as myocardial infarction and heart failure (HF). The role of MDK is not clear in cardiovascular disease and currently there is no consensus if it plays a beneficial or detrimental role in HF. The lack of clarity in the literature is exacerbated by differing roles that circulating and myocardial MDK play in signaling pathways in cardiomyocytes (some of which have yet to be elucidated). Of particular interest, serum MDK is elevated in adults with chronic heart failure and higher circulating MDK is associated with worse cardiac function. In addition, pediatric HF patients have higher levels of myocardial MDK. This review focuses on what is known about the effect of exogenous versus myocardial MDK in various cardiac disease models in an effort to better clarify the role of midkine in HF. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessReview Dystrophic Cardiomyopathy: Complex Pathobiological Processes to Generate Clinical Phenotype
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 14; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030014
Received: 5 July 2017 / Revised: 27 August 2017 / Accepted: 30 August 2017 / Published: 8 September 2017
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Abstract
Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XL-DCM) consist of a unique clinical entity, the dystrophinopathies, which are due to variable mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common complication of dystrophinopathies, but the onset,
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), Becker muscular dystrophy (BMD), and X-linked dilated cardiomyopathy (XL-DCM) consist of a unique clinical entity, the dystrophinopathies, which are due to variable mutations in the dystrophin gene. Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is a common complication of dystrophinopathies, but the onset, progression, and severity of heart disease differ among these subgroups. Extensive molecular genetic studies have been conducted to assess genotype-phenotype correlation in DMD, BMD, and XL-DCM to understand the underlying mechanisms of these diseases, but the results are not always conclusive, suggesting the involvement of complex multi-layers of pathological processes that generate the final clinical phenotype. Dystrophin protein is a part of dystrophin-glycoprotein complex (DGC) that is localized in skeletal muscles, myocardium, smooth muscles, and neuronal tissues. Diversity of cardiac phenotype in dystrophinopathies suggests multiple layers of pathogenetic mechanisms in forming dystrophic cardiomyopathy. In this review article, we review the complex molecular interactions involving the pathogenesis of dystrophic cardiomyopathy, including primary gene mutations and loss of structural integrity, secondary cellular responses, and certain epigenetic and other factors that modulate gene expressions. Involvement of epigenetic gene regulation appears to lead to specific cardiac phenotypes in dystrophic hearts. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Genetics and Treatment of Dilated Cardiomyopathy)
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Open AccessReview Establishing the Embryonic Axes: Prime Time for Teratogenic Insults
J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 15; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030015
Received: 11 August 2017 / Revised: 1 September 2017 / Accepted: 2 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
A long standing axiom in the field of teratology states that the teratogenic period, when most birth defects are produced, occurs during the third to eighth weeks of development post-fertilization. Any insults prior to this time are thought to result in a slowing
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A long standing axiom in the field of teratology states that the teratogenic period, when most birth defects are produced, occurs during the third to eighth weeks of development post-fertilization. Any insults prior to this time are thought to result in a slowing of embryonic growth from which the conceptus recovers or death of the embryo followed by spontaneous abortion. However, new insights into embryonic development during the first two weeks, including formation of the anterior-posterior, dorsal-ventral, and left-right axes, suggests that signaling pathways regulating these processes are prime targets for genetic and toxic insults. Establishment of the left-right (laterality) axis is particularly sensitive to disruption at very early stages of development and these perturbations result in a wide variety of congenital malformations, especially heart defects. Thus, the time for teratogenic insults resulting in birth defects should be reset to include the first two weeks of development. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Left–Right Asymmetry and Cardiac Morphogenesis)
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