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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4(3), 10; doi:10.3390/jcdd4030010

Phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 Differentially Regulate the Funny Current, If, in Mouse Sinoatrial Node Myocytes

1
Department of Physiology and Biophysics, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
2
Department of Medicine, Division of Cardiology, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora, CO 80045, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 June 2017 / Revised: 17 July 2017 / Accepted: 19 July 2017 / Published: 1 August 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Cyclic Nucleotide Signaling and the Cardiovascular System)
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Abstract

Cardiac pacemaking, at rest and during the sympathetic fight-or-flight response, depends on cAMP (3′,5′-cyclic adenosine monophosphate) signaling in sinoatrial node myocytes (SAMs). The cardiac “funny current” (If) is among the cAMP-sensitive effectors that drive pacemaking in SAMs. If is produced by hyperpolarization-activated, cyclic nucleotide-sensitive (HCN) channels. Voltage-dependent gating of HCN channels is potentiated by cAMP, which acts either by binding directly to the channels or by activating the cAMP-dependent protein kinase (PKA), which phosphorylates them. PKA activity is required for signaling between β adrenergic receptors (βARs) and HCN channels in SAMs but the mechanism that constrains cAMP signaling to a PKA-dependent pathway is unknown. Phosphodiesterases (PDEs) hydrolyze cAMP and form cAMP signaling domains in other types of cardiomyocytes. Here we examine the role of PDEs in regulation of If in SAMs. If was recorded in whole-cell voltage-clamp experiments from acutely-isolated mouse SAMs in the absence or presence of PDE and PKA inhibitors, and before and after βAR stimulation. General PDE inhibition caused a PKA-independent depolarizing shift in the midpoint activation voltage (V1/2) of If at rest and removed the requirement for PKA in βAR-to-HCN signaling. PDE4 inhibition produced a similar PKA-independent depolarizing shift in the V1/2 of If at rest, but did not remove the requirement for PKA in βAR-to-HCN signaling. PDE3 inhibition produced PKA-dependent changes in If both at rest and in response to βAR stimulation. Our results suggest that PDE3 and PDE4 isoforms create distinct cAMP signaling domains that differentially constrain access of cAMP to HCN channels and establish the requirement for PKA in signaling between βARs and HCN channels in SAMs. View Full-Text
Keywords: sinoatrial node; HCN channel; funny current (If); cardiac pacemaking; cardiomyocyte; cell compartmentalization; phosphodiesterases; cyclic AMP (cAMP); ion channel; patch clamp sinoatrial node; HCN channel; funny current (If); cardiac pacemaking; cardiomyocyte; cell compartmentalization; phosphodiesterases; cyclic AMP (cAMP); ion channel; patch clamp
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MDPI and ACS Style

St. Clair, J.R.; Larson, E.D.; Sharpe, E.J.; Liao, Z.; Proenza, C. Phosphodiesterases 3 and 4 Differentially Regulate the Funny Current, If, in Mouse Sinoatrial Node Myocytes. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2017, 4, 10.

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