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J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3(1), 10; doi:10.3390/jcdd3010010

Probing the Electrophysiology of the Developing Heart

1
Department of Pediatrics, School of Medicine, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
2
Rainbow Babies and Children’s Hospital, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
3
Department of Biomedical Engineering, Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH 44106, USA
4
Department of Medical Pharmacology and Physiology, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201, USA
5
Dalton Cardiovascular Research Center, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65201, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editors: Robert Poelmann and Monique R.M. Jongbloed
Received: 26 January 2016 / Revised: 8 March 2016 / Accepted: 10 March 2016 / Published: 22 March 2016
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Abstract

Many diseases that result in dysfunction and dysmorphology of the heart originate in the embryo. However, the embryonic heart presents a challenging subject for study: especially challenging is its electrophysiology. Electrophysiological maturation of the embryonic heart without disturbing its physiological function requires the creation and deployment of novel technologies along with the use of classical techniques on a range of animal models. Each tool has its strengths and limitations and has contributed to making key discoveries to expand our understanding of cardiac development. Further progress in understanding the mechanisms that regulate the normal and abnormal development of the electrophysiology of the heart requires integration of this functional information with the more extensively elucidated structural and molecular changes. View Full-Text
Keywords: cardiovascular development; cardiac conduction system; electrophysiology; electrodes; optical mapping; optical pacing; atrioventricular junction; sinoatrial node; atrioventricular node; His-Purkinje system cardiovascular development; cardiac conduction system; electrophysiology; electrodes; optical mapping; optical pacing; atrioventricular junction; sinoatrial node; atrioventricular node; His-Purkinje system
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Watanabe, M.; Rollins, A.M.; Polo-Parada, L.; Ma, P.; Gu, S.; Jenkins, M.W. Probing the Electrophysiology of the Developing Heart. J. Cardiovasc. Dev. Dis. 2016, 3, 10.

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