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ChemEngineering, Volume 1, Issue 1 (September 2017)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial ChemEngineering—Inaugural Editorial
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 1; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010001
Received: 25 January 2017 / Revised: 25 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
I am pleased to introduce ChemEngineering, a new peer-reviewed, open access journal, on behalf of the Editorial Board members. [...] Full article

Research

Jump to: Editorial

Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Removal of Nitrate from Drinking Water by Ion-Exchange Followed by nZVI-Based Reduction and Electrooxidation of the Ammonia Product to N2(g)
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 2; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010002
Received: 5 April 2017 / Revised: 30 April 2017 / Accepted: 4 May 2017 / Published: 10 May 2017
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Abstract
Ion-exchange (IX) is common for separating NO3 from drinking water. From both cost and environmental perspectives, the IX regeneration brine must be recycled, via nitrate reduction to N2(g). Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduces nitrate efficiently to ammonia, under brine
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Ion-exchange (IX) is common for separating NO3 from drinking water. From both cost and environmental perspectives, the IX regeneration brine must be recycled, via nitrate reduction to N2(g). Nano zero-valent iron (nZVI) reduces nitrate efficiently to ammonia, under brine conditions. However, to be sustainable, the formed ammonia should be oxidized. Accordingly, a new process was developed, comprising IX separation, nZVI-based nitrate removal from the IX regeneration brine, followed by indirect ammonia electro-oxidation. The aim was to convert nitrate to N2(g) while allowing repeated usage of the NaCl brine for multiple IX cycles. All process steps were experimentally examined and shown to be feasible: nitrate was efficiently separated using IX, which was subsequently regenerated with the treated/recovered NaCl brine. The nitrate released to the brine reacted with nZVI, generating ammonia and Fe(II). Fresh nZVI particles were reproduced from the resulting brine, which contained Fe(II), Na+, Cl and ammonia. The ammonia in the nZVI production procedure filtrate was indirectly electro-oxidized to N2(g) at the inherent high Cl concentration, which prepared the brine for the next IX regeneration cycle. The dominant reaction between nZVI and NO3 was described best (Wilcoxon test) by 4Fe(s) + 10H+ + NO3 → 4Fe2+ + NH4+ + 3H2O, and proceeded at >5 mmol·L−1·min−1 at room temperature and 3 < pH < 5. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) Characterization of Water/Sodium Bis(2-Ethylhexyl) Sulfosuccinate-HDEHP/n-Dodecane Reverse Micelles for Electroextraction of Neodymium
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 3; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010003
Received: 21 May 2017 / Revised: 10 June 2017 / Accepted: 19 June 2017 / Published: 23 June 2017
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Abstract
The extraction and separation of metal ions in the lanthanide series using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) technique poses a major challenge due to the chemical similarities of the metals and hence interest exists in devising a technique to improve the separation factor. In
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The extraction and separation of metal ions in the lanthanide series using the liquid-liquid extraction (LLX) technique poses a major challenge due to the chemical similarities of the metals and hence interest exists in devising a technique to improve the separation factor. In this work, sodium bis(2-ethylhexyl) sulfosuccinate (AOT) is explored for improved organic phase conductivity to aid the use of an imposed external field to improve the LLX. The electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) technique was used to determine the effect of molar water content, AOT and HDEHP (bis(2-ethylhexyl) phosphoric acid) concentration, and the temperature on the reverse micelle solution conductivity. Results showed that as AOT concentration and water content increases, conductivity increases until the reverse micelles collapse. The addition of HDEHP caused a significant drop in solution conductivity. For a mixed AOT and HDEHP system and at a small applied external field range of 0–1.4 kV m−1 and 60 rpm stir rate, a significant improvement in Nd extraction was observed relative to the traditional LLX using HDEHP only. With AOT only, a 40% improvement in extraction was observed with applied field relative to the absence of field. Cost consideration favors the use of mixed AOT and HDEHP at a slow stir rate for improved Nd extraction. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Thermodynamic Analysis of Autothermal Reforming of Synthetic Crude Glycerol (SCG) for Hydrogen Production
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 4; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010004
Received: 3 June 2017 / Revised: 16 July 2017 / Accepted: 16 July 2017 / Published: 19 July 2017
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Abstract
This study presents the thermodynamic modelling of hydrogen production from autothermal reforming of synthetic crude glycerol using the Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera thermodynamic model and Gibbs free energy minimization approach. In order to simulate the typical crude glycerol, a solution was prepared by mixing glycerol,
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This study presents the thermodynamic modelling of hydrogen production from autothermal reforming of synthetic crude glycerol using the Peng-Robinson Stryjek-Vera thermodynamic model and Gibbs free energy minimization approach. In order to simulate the typical crude glycerol, a solution was prepared by mixing glycerol, methanol, soap, and fatty acids. The equilibrium compositions of the reforming gas were obtained and the impacts of the operating temperature, steam to crude glycerol ratio (S/SCG), and oxygen to crude glycerol ratio (O/SCG) on hydrogen production were investigated. Under isothermal conditions, the result showed that maximum hydrogen production is favoured at conditions of high temperatures, high S/SCG, and low O/SCG ratio. However, under thermoneutral conditions where no external heat is supplied to the reformer, results indicate that high hydrogen yield is realised at conditions of high temperatures, high S/SCG and high O/SCG ratio. Furthermore, it was concluded that under thermoneutral condition, steam to SCG ratio of 3.6, oxygen to SCG ratio of 0.75, and adiabatic temperature of 927 K yields maximum hydrogen. Full article
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Open AccessFeature PaperArticle Novel Method Based on Spin-Coating for the Preparation of 2D and 3D Si-Based Anodes for Lithium Ion Batteries
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 5; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010005
Received: 21 June 2017 / Revised: 21 July 2017 / Accepted: 24 July 2017 / Published: 27 July 2017
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Abstract
The present study describes a novel strategy for preparing thin Silicon 2D and 3D electrodes for lithium ion batteries by a spin coating method. A homogeneous and stable suspension of Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) was prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) or
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The present study describes a novel strategy for preparing thin Silicon 2D and 3D electrodes for lithium ion batteries by a spin coating method. A homogeneous and stable suspension of Si nanoparticles (SiNPs) was prepared by dispersing the nanoparticles in 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone (NMP) or in the room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide (Pyr14TFSI). This proposed methodology was successfully employed to prepare 2D and 3D with different aspect ratios electrodes. Both 2D and 3D materials were then used as anode materials. The 2D SiNPs anodes exhibit a high reversible capacity, which is close to 3500 mAh·g−1 at C/10. For a higher discharge rate, the capacity of the 2D anode is considerably improved by dispersing the nanoparticles in Pyr14TFSI instead of NMP solvent. In order to further improve the anode performances, graphene particles were added to the SiNPs suspension. The anodes prepared using this suspension method exhibit relatively low columbic efficiency during the first few cycles (less than 30%) and low reversible capacity (2800 mAh·g−1 at C/10). The 3D SiNPs (NMP) electrode shows a higher intensity during cyclic voltammograms and a better stability under galvanostatic cycling than the 2D SiNPs (NMP) electrode. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Effect of Methyl β-cyclodextrin on Radical Scavenging Kinetics of Olive Leaf Extracts and Interactions with Ascorbic Acid
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 6; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010006
Received: 25 August 2017 / Revised: 6 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 11 September 2017
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Abstract
Olive leaf (OLL) extracts contain a high load of antioxidant polyphenols with significant pharmacological potency. In this study, the use of a novel natural deep eutectic solvent enabled the effective extraction of OLL polyphenols and their testing as radical scavengers, in the presence
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Olive leaf (OLL) extracts contain a high load of antioxidant polyphenols with significant pharmacological potency. In this study, the use of a novel natural deep eutectic solvent enabled the effective extraction of OLL polyphenols and their testing as radical scavengers, in the presence or absence of methyl β-cyclodextrin (m-β-CD), using descriptive kinetics. Testing was extended to include interactions with ascorbic acid—a natural powerful antioxidant—by implementing a response surface methodology. The kinetic study showed that m-β-CD may hinder the radical scavenging effect of OLL extracts, yielding lower stoichiometry upon reaction with the radical probe 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazy (DPPH). The extension of the reaction time to determine the total stoichiometry confirmed this effect. As a further concurrence, the interactions of OLL extracts with ascorbic acid showed lower radical scavenging performance in the presence of m-β-CD. These results were discussed on the grounds of the role that m-β-CD may play in similar systems. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Glycerol Oxidation in the Liquid Phase over a Gold-Supported Catalyst: Kinetic Analysis and Modelling
ChemEngineering 2017, 1(1), 7; doi:10.3390/chemengineering1010007
Received: 24 July 2017 / Revised: 4 September 2017 / Accepted: 7 September 2017 / Published: 15 September 2017
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Abstract
The present work deals with the kinetic analysis and modelling of glycerol (GLY) oxidation in the liquid phase over a supported gold catalyst. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was proposed, after considering the effect of the reaction temperature, the NaOH/GLY ratio and the initial concentrations
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The present work deals with the kinetic analysis and modelling of glycerol (GLY) oxidation in the liquid phase over a supported gold catalyst. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood model was proposed, after considering the effect of the reaction temperature, the NaOH/GLY ratio and the initial concentrations of GLY and GLY-Product mixtures. The proposed model effectively predicted the experimental results, and both the global model and the individual parameters were statistically significant. The results revealed that the C–C cleavage to form glycolic and formic acids was the most important reaction without a catalyst. On the other hand, the supported Au catalyst promoted the GLY oxidation to glyceric acid and its further conversion to tartronic and oxalic acids. Regarding the adsorption terms, glyceric acid showed the highest constant value at 60 °C, whereas those of GLY and OH were also significant. Indeed, this adsorption role of OH seems to be the reason why the higher NaOH/GLY ratio did not lead to higher GLY conversion in the Au-catalysed reaction. Full article
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