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Toxics, Volume 5, Issue 1 (March 2017)

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Cover Story (view full-size image) Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous agents that have the capacity to behave as [...] Read more.
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Open AccessCommunication The Food and Beverage Occurrence of Furfuryl Alcohol and Myrcene—Two Emerging Potential Human Carcinogens?
Received: 23 December 2016 / Revised: 2 March 2017 / Accepted: 6 March 2017 / Published: 11 March 2017
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (413 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new
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For decades, compounds present in foods and beverages have been implicated in the etiology of human cancers. The World Health Organization (WHO) International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC) continues to classify such agents regarding their potential carcinogenicity in humans based on new evidence from animal and human studies. Furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene are potential human carcinogens due to be evaluated. The major source of furfuryl alcohol in foods is thermal processing and ageing of alcoholic beverages, while β-myrcene occurs naturally as a constituent of the essential oils of plants such as hops, lemongrass, and derived products. This study aimed to summarize the occurrence of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene in foods and beverages using literature review data. Additionally, results of furfuryl alcohol occurrence from our own nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis are included. The highest content of furfuryl alcohol was found in coffee beans (>100 mg/kg) and in some fish products (about 10 mg/kg), while among beverages, wines contained between 1 and 10 mg/L, with 8 mg/L in pineapple juice. The content of β-myrcene was highest in hops. In conclusion, the data about the occurrence of the two agents is currently judged as insufficient for exposure and risk assessment. The results of this study point out the food and beverage groups that may be considered for future monitoring of furfuryl alcohol and β-myrcene. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Analysis of Chemical Contaminants in Food)
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Open AccessArticle Cytotoxic and Inflammatory Potential of Air Samples from Occupational Settings with Exposure to Organic Dust
Received: 22 December 2016 / Revised: 13 February 2017 / Accepted: 21 February 2017 / Published: 1 March 2017
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1338 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic dust and related microbial exposures are the main inducers of several respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to organic dust is very common and has been reported in diverse settings. In vitro tests using relevant cell cultures can be very useful for characterizing the
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Organic dust and related microbial exposures are the main inducers of several respiratory symptoms. Occupational exposure to organic dust is very common and has been reported in diverse settings. In vitro tests using relevant cell cultures can be very useful for characterizing the toxicity of complex mixtures present in the air of occupational environments such as organic dust. In this study, the cell viability and the inflammatory response, as measured by the production of pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNFα) and interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), were determined in human macrophages derived from THP-1 monocytic cells. These cells were exposed to air samples from five occupational settings known to possess high levels of contamination of organic dust: poultry and swine feed industries, waste sorting, poultry production and slaughterhouses. Additionally, fungi and particle contamination of those settings was studied to better characterize the organic dust composition. All air samples collected from the assessed workplaces caused both cytotoxic and pro-inflammatory effects. The highest responses were observed in the feed industry, particularly in swine feed production. This study emphasizes the importance of measuring the organic dust/mixture effects in occupational settings and suggests that differences in the organic dust content may result in differences in health effects for exposed workers. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Current Mercury Exposure from Artisanal and Small-Scale Gold Mining in Bombana, Southeast Sulawesi, Indonesia—Future Significant Health Risks
Received: 6 January 2017 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 3 February 2017 / Published: 8 February 2017
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Abstract
The rapid expansion of the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) industry in developing countries has marginalized the local communities in poverty, and resulted in occupational exposure to mercury via the gold extraction process. We investigated the mercury exposure of the mining workers
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The rapid expansion of the artisanal and small-scale gold mining (ASGM) industry in developing countries has marginalized the local communities in poverty, and resulted in occupational exposure to mercury via the gold extraction process. We investigated the mercury exposure of the mining workers lived inside and outside the mining area. Based on the occupations of the contributors, the hair samples were divided into three subgroups: directly exposed, indirectly exposed, and a control. A total of 81 hair samples were analyzed by particle-induced X-ray emission spectrometry. The median mercury concentration was highest in the hair from the directly exposed group (12.82 μg/g hair) (control group median: 4.8 μg/g hair, p < 0.05), and the concentrations in hair from 45 respondents exceeded the Human Biomonitoring I (HBM I) threshold limit. Mercury concentrations were also elevated in the hair from the indirectly exposed group (median 7.64 μg/g hair, p < 0.05), and concentrations in hair from 24 respondents exceeded the HBM I threshold limits. Exposure to mercury during ASGM presents health risks and is harmful for the miners; mercury is also at hazardous levels for people who live in the mining area but who are not engaged in mercury-based gold extraction. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Heavy Metals Toxicology)
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Open AccessReview EDCs Mixtures: A Stealthy Hazard for Human Health?
Received: 12 December 2016 / Revised: 23 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 7 February 2017
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (269 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens), while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic
[...] Read more.
Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) are exogenous chemicals that may occur naturally (e.g., phytoestrogens), while others are industrial substances and plasticizers commonly utilized worldwide to which human exposure, particularly at low-doses, is omnipresent, persistent and occurs in complex mixtures. EDCs can interfere with/or mimic estrogenic hormones and, consequently, can simultaneously trigger diverse signaling pathways which result in diverse and divergent biological responses. Additionally, EDCs can also bioaccumulate in lipid compartments of the organism forming a mixed “body burden” of contaminants. Although the independent action of chemicals has been considered the main principle in EDCs mixture toxicity, recent studies have demonstrated that numerous effects cannot be predicted when analyzing single compounds independently. Co-exposure to these agents, particularly in critical windows of exposure, may induce hazardous health effects potentially associated with a complex “body burden” of different origins. Here, we performed an exhaustive review of the available literature regarding EDCs mixtures exposure, toxicity mechanisms and effects, particularly at the most vulnerable human life stages. Although the assessment of potential risks to human health due to exposure to EDCs mixtures is a major topic for consumer safety, information regarding effective mixtures effects is still scarce. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Xenobiotics in Developmental Neurotoxicity)
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Open AccessArticle Tannery Effluent Treatment by Yeast Species Isolates from Watermelon
Received: 17 September 2016 / Revised: 24 January 2017 / Accepted: 25 January 2017 / Published: 4 February 2017
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Abstract
The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon
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The quest for an effective alternative means for effluent treatment is a major concern of the modern-day scientist. Fungi have been attracting a growing interest for the biological treatment of industrial wastewater. In this study, Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii were isolated from spoiled watermelon and inoculated into different concentrations of effluent. The inoculants were incubated for 21-days to monitor the performance of the isolates by measurement of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD), chemical oxygen demand (COD), nitrates, conductivity, phosphates, sulphates and turbidity. The results showed that Saccharomycescerevisiae had the highest percentage decrease of 98.1%, 83.0%, 60.7%, 60.5%, and 54.2% for turbidity, sulphates, BOD, phosphates and COD, respectively, of the tannery effluent. Torulasporadelbrueckii showed the highest percentage decrease of 92.9%, 90.6%, and 61.9% for sulphates, COD, and phosphates, respectively, while the syndicate showed the highest percentage reduction of 87.4% and 70.2% for nitrate and total dissolve solid (TDS), respectively. The least percentage decrease was displayed by syndicate organisms at 51.2%, 48.1% and 40.3% for BOD, COD and conductivity, respectively. The study revealed that Saccharomycescerevisiae and Torulasporadelbrueckii could be used in the biological treatment of tannery-effluent. Hence, it was concluded that the use of these organisms could contribute to minimizing the adverse environmental risks and health-hazards associated with the disposal of untreated tannery-effluents. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Fate and Transport of Contaminants in Soil and Groundwater Systems)
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Open AccessEditorial Acknowledgement to Reviewers of Toxics in 2016
Received: 11 January 2017 / Revised: 11 January 2017 / Accepted: 11 January 2017 / Published: 11 January 2017
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Abstract
The editors of Toxics would like to express their sincere gratitude to the following reviewers for assessing manuscripts in 2016.[...] Full article
Open AccessArticle Urinary Naphthol as a Biomarker of Exposure: Results from an Oral Exposure to Carbaryl and Workers Occupationally Exposed to Naphthalene
Received: 27 October 2016 / Revised: 28 December 2016 / Accepted: 30 December 2016 / Published: 6 January 2017
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (725 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Urinary naphthol is an established human biomarker used for assessing both occupational and environmental exposure. However, 1-naphthol is a metabolite of the insecticide carbaryl while both the 1- and 2-isomers are metabolites of naphthalene. Thus, urinary 1-naphthol levels will reflect combined exposure to
[...] Read more.
Urinary naphthol is an established human biomarker used for assessing both occupational and environmental exposure. However, 1-naphthol is a metabolite of the insecticide carbaryl while both the 1- and 2-isomers are metabolites of naphthalene. Thus, urinary 1-naphthol levels will reflect combined exposure to both substances, particularly at environmental levels. The interpretation of biomarkers is aided by knowledge of levels following well-characterised exposure scenarios. This study reports urinary 1-naphthol levels in five volunteers administered an oral dose of carbaryl at the acceptable daily intake (ADI, 0.008 mg/kg). The elimination half-life was 3.6 h and the mean 1-naphthol level in 24 h total urine collections, normalised for a 70 kg individual, was 37.4 µmol/mol creatinine (range 21.3–84.3). Peak levels in spot-urine samples were around 200 µmol/mol creatinine. For comparison, 327 post-shift urine samples obtained from 90 individual workers exposed occupationally to naphthalene had 1-naphthol levels from below the limit of detection (<LoD) to 1027 µmol/mol creatinine (median = 4.2, mean = 27.2). The 2-naphthol levels ranged from <LoD to 153 µmol/mol creatinine (median = 4.0, mean = 8.1). Background ranges have been reported for urine naphthols in several populations, with upper limits between 10 and 20 µmol/mol creatinine. The data reported here suggest that environmental exposure to carbaryl and naphthalene in these populations is well controlled. Full article
(This article belongs to the collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
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Open AccessArticle Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients
Received: 29 September 2016 / Revised: 13 December 2016 / Accepted: 20 December 2016 / Published: 27 December 2016
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (567 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This study aimed to analyze the ecotoxicity of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and potassium-based compounds to organisms of two different trophic levels in order to compare the toxic effect between high-purity substances and these substances as components of fertilizers. Dilutions were made with the fertilizers’
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This study aimed to analyze the ecotoxicity of nitrogen-, phosphorus-, and potassium-based compounds to organisms of two different trophic levels in order to compare the toxic effect between high-purity substances and these substances as components of fertilizers. Dilutions were made with the fertilizers’ potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, superphosphate, urea, and their equivalent reagents, to conduct assays to establish the acute lethal concentration for half of the population (LC50). Ten individuals of the benthic snail Biomphalaria glabrata and the fish Danio rerio were exposed to each concentration of tested compounds. As a result, the toxicity levels of potassium chloride, potassium nitrate, and urea were obtained for B. glabrata and D. rerio, with the fish being more susceptible to potassium chloride in the fertilizer and the snail to potassium nitrate and urea, in both commercial and reagent forms. Regarding superphosphate, no significant toxicity was found. This study concluded that among the tested substances, KNO3 and KCl were the most toxic substances and urea the least toxic. It was not possible to establish the most sensitive species since, for KCl, the fish were more susceptible to the fertilizer and the snail to the reagent, while for KNO3 the opposite was observed. Full article
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Open AccessReview A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (234 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers) or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks). Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the
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Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers) or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks). Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies. Full article
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