Next Article in Journal
Comparative Analysis between Ecotoxicity of Nitrogen-, Phosphorus-, and Potassium-Based Fertilizers and Their Active Ingredients
Previous Article in Journal
Drug Vaping: From the Dangers of Misuse to New Therapeutic Devices
Article Menu
Issue 1 (March) cover image

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxics 2017, 5(1), 1; doi:10.3390/toxics5010001

A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria

Department of Biological Sciences, Faculty of Science, Niger Delta University, Wilberforce Island, Yenagoa P.M.B. 071, Bayelsa State, Nigeria
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: David Bellinger
Received: 6 November 2016 / Revised: 14 December 2016 / Accepted: 18 December 2016 / Published: 22 December 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [234 KB, uploaded 22 December 2016]


Beverages are consumed in Nigeria irrespective of age, sex, and socioeconomic status. Beverages may be alcoholic (wine, spirits, and beers) or non-alcoholic (soft drink, energy drinks, candies, chocolates, milks). Notwithstanding, most beverages are packed in cans, bottles, and plastics. This paper reviews the concentration of heavy metals from some commercially-packaged beverages consumed in Nigeria. The study found that heavy metal concentrations, including iron, mercury, tin, antimony, cadmium, zinc, copper, chromium, lead, and manganese, seldom exceed the maximum contaminant level recommended by the Standard Organization of Nigeria (SON) and the World Health Organization (WHO) as applicable to drinking water resources. The occurrence of heavy metals in the beverages could have resulted from the feedstocks and water used in their production. Consumption of beverages high in heavy metal could be toxic and cause adverse effect to human health, depending on the rate of exposure and accumulation dosage. This study concludes by suggesting that heavy metal concentration in the feedstocks and water should be monitored by producers, and its concentration in beverages should also be monitored by appropriate regulatory agencies. View Full-Text
Keywords: alcohol; beverages; contamination; health impacts; heavy metals; soft drink alcohol; beverages; contamination; health impacts; heavy metals; soft drink
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Izah, S.C.; Inyang, I.R.; Angaye, T.C.N.; Okowa, I.P. A Review of Heavy Metal Concentration and Potential Health Implications of Beverages Consumed in Nigeria. Toxics 2017, 5, 1.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxics EISSN 2305-6304 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top