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Toxics 2016, 4(4), 25; doi:10.3390/toxics4040025

Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study

1
Department of Veterinary Medicine and Public Health, Sokoine University of Agriculture, P. O. Box 3021, Morogoro 023, Tanzania
2
Department of Food Safety and Infection Biology, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, P. O. Box 8146, Oslo 454, Norway
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos A. Damalas
Received: 6 April 2016 / Revised: 16 September 2016 / Accepted: 20 September 2016 / Published: 29 September 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [256 KB, uploaded 29 September 2016]

Abstract

The study aimed to assess the association of long-term pesticide exposure (≥5 years) with hematological, serum biochemical parameters and acetylcholinesterase activity in farm workers. These pesticides included organophosphorus pesticides, carbamates, pyrethroids, dithiocarbamates, and other pesticides such as endosulfan. Applying a cross-sectional study design, 69 females from a pesticide-exposed farm population and 30 females from a district not using pesticides (reference group) were studied. The mean red cell corpuscular volume and hematocrit values were significantly lower (74.7 ± 9.1 fl; 95% CI 72.5–76.9 and 32.0% ± 4.6%; 95% CI 30.9–33.1, respectively) in the exposed compared to the reference group, whereas mean corpuscular hemoglobin concentration and platelets were significantly higher (37.4 ± 3.8 g/dL; 95% CI 36.5–38.3 and 374.1 ± 95.3/L; 95% CI 351.2–396.9, respectively) in the exposed compared to the reference group. Mean serum glutamic oxaloacetate transaminase (20.7 ± 8.9 U/L; 95% CI 18.5–22.9) and creatinine (83.9 ± 6.6 μmol/L; 95% CI 82.3–85.5) were significantly higher in the exposed compared to the reference group. A higher mean esterase activity (AChE 0.6 ± 0.2 mM/min/mg protein; 95% CI 0.56–0.7; BChE 0.9 ± 0.4 mM/min/mg protein; 95% CI 0.9–1.1) was noted in the exposed group. Regression models suggest that occupational exposure (p < 0.001) could be a predictor of esterase (AChE and BChE) activity and biochemical changes (β = 0.4, 95% CI: 0.3–0.5; β = 0.7, 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, respectively). Long-term pesticide exposure affects the hemato-biochemical and esterase responses, establishing the need for further studies. View Full-Text
Keywords: pesticides; hematological; biochemical; acetylcholine esterase activity; effects pesticides; hematological; biochemical; acetylcholine esterase activity; effects
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Manyilizu, W.B.; Mdegela, R.H.; Kazwala, R.; Nonga, H.; Muller, M.; Lie, E.; Skjerve, E.; Lyche, J.L. Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study. Toxics 2016, 4, 25.

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