Next Article in Journal
Association of Long-Term Pesticide Exposure and Biologic Parameters in Female Farm Workers in Tanzania: A Cross Sectional Study
Previous Article in Journal
Effects of Estrogen, Nitric Oxide, and Dopamine on Behavioral Locomotor Activities in the Embryonic Zebrafish: A Pharmacological Study
Previous Article in Special Issue
Urinary Phthalate Metabolites and Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress in a Mexican-American Cohort: Variability in Early and Late Pregnancy
Article Menu

Export Article

Open AccessReview
Toxics 2016, 4(4), 23; doi:10.3390/toxics4040023

Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases

Department of Veterinary Biosciences and Diagnostic Imaging, Interdisciplinary Toxicology Program, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382, USA
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602-7382, USA
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Shu-Li Wang
Received: 8 August 2016 / Revised: 31 August 2016 / Accepted: 12 September 2016 / Published: 26 September 2016
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1528 KB, uploaded 26 September 2016]   |  


Bisphenol A (BPA), used in polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins, has a widespread exposure to humans. BPA is of concern for developmental exposure resulting in immunomodulation and disease development due to its ability to cross the placental barrier and presence in breast milk. BPA can use various mechanisms to modulate the immune system and affect diseases, including agonistic and antagonistic effects on many receptors (e.g., estrogen receptors), epigenetic modifications, acting on cell signaling pathways and, likely, the gut microbiome. Immune cell populations and function from the innate and adaptive immune system are altered by developmental BPA exposure, including decreased T regulatory (Treg) cells and upregulated pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. Developmental BPA exposure can also contribute to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, allergy, asthma and mammary cancer disease by altering immune function. Multiple sclerosis and type 1 diabetes mellitus may also be exacerbated by BPA, although more research is needed. Additionally, BPA analogs, such as bisphenol S (BPS), have been increasing in use, and currently, little is known about their immune effects. Therefore, more studies should be conducted to determine if developmental exposure BPA and its analogs modulate immune responses and lead to immune-related diseases. View Full-Text
Keywords: bisphenol A; immunotoxicity; developmental; epigenetics; microbiome; multiple sclerosis; diabetes; allergy; asthma; mammary cancer; bisphenol S bisphenol A; immunotoxicity; developmental; epigenetics; microbiome; multiple sclerosis; diabetes; allergy; asthma; mammary cancer; bisphenol S

Figure 1

This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

Scifeed alert for new publications

Never miss any articles matching your research from any publisher
  • Get alerts for new papers matching your research
  • Find out the new papers from selected authors
  • Updated daily for 49'000+ journals and 6000+ publishers
  • Define your Scifeed now

SciFeed Share & Cite This Article

MDPI and ACS Style

Xu, J.; Huang, G.; Guo, T.L. Developmental Bisphenol A Exposure Modulates Immune-Related Diseases. Toxics 2016, 4, 23.

Show more citation formats Show less citations formats

Note that from the first issue of 2016, MDPI journals use article numbers instead of page numbers. See further details here.

Related Articles

Article Metrics

Article Access Statistics



[Return to top]
Toxics EISSN 2305-6304 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert
Back to Top