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Toxics 2016, 4(2), 10; doi:10.3390/toxics4020010

Development of a Biomarker for Penconazole: A Human Oral Dosing Study and a Survey of UK Residents’ Exposure

1
Health and Safety Laboratory (HSL), Buxton SK17 9JZ, UK
2
Centre for Human Exposure Science, Institute of Occupational Medicine (IOM), Edinburgh EH14 4AP, UK
3
School of Engineering and the Built Environment, Glasgow Caledonian University, Glasgow G4 0BA, UK
4
Institute of Biological Chemistry, Biophysics and Bioengineering, Heriot Watt University, Edinburgh EH14 4AS, UK
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Christos Damalas
Received: 16 March 2016 / Revised: 26 April 2016 / Accepted: 5 May 2016 / Published: 13 May 2016
(This article belongs to the Collection Risk Assessment of Pesticide Exposure)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [948 KB, uploaded 13 May 2016]   |  

Abstract

Penconazole is a widely used fungicide in the UK; however, to date, there have been no peer-reviewed publications reporting human metabolism, excretion or biological monitoring data. The objectives of this study were to i) develop a robust analytical method, ii) determine biomarker levels in volunteers exposed to penconazole, and, finally, to iii) measure the metabolites in samples collected as part of a large investigation of rural residents’ exposure. An LC-MS/MS method was developed for penconazole and two oxidative metabolites. Three volunteers received a single oral dose of 0.03 mg/kg body weight and timed urine samples were collected and analysed. The volunteer study demonstrated that both penconazole-OH and penconazole-COOH are excreted in humans following an oral dose and are viable biomarkers. Excretion is rapid with a half-life of less than four hours. Mean recovery of the administered dose was 47% (range 33%–54%) in urine treated with glucuronidase to hydrolyse any conjugates. The results from the residents’ study showed that levels of penconazole-COOH in this population were low with >80% below the limit of detection. Future sampling strategies that include both end of exposure and next day urine samples, as well as contextual data about the route and time of exposure, are recommended. View Full-Text
Keywords: penconazole; urine; biomarkers; fungicide; spray; residents; exposure; biological monitoring penconazole; urine; biomarkers; fungicide; spray; residents; exposure; biological monitoring
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Sams, C.; Jones, K.; Galea, K.S.; MacCalman, L.; Cocker, J.; Teedon, P.; Cherrie, J.W.; van Tongeren, M. Development of a Biomarker for Penconazole: A Human Oral Dosing Study and a Survey of UK Residents’ Exposure. Toxics 2016, 4, 10.

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