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Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells
Wise Laboratory of Environmental and Genetic Toxicology, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
Maine Center for Toxicology and Environmental Health, University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
Department of Applied Medical Science, 96 Falmouth St., University of Southern Maine, Portland, ME 04104, USA
Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, University of Maine, Orono, ME 04469, USA
Department of Environmental Health Sciences, Yale School of Public Health, New Haven, CT 06520, USA
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 16 October 2013; in revised form: 6 November 2013 / Accepted: 14 November 2013 / Published: 25 November 2013
Abstract: Nickel is a well-known human lung carcinogen with the particulate form being the most potent; however, the carcinogenic mechanism remains largely unknown. Few studies have investigated the genotoxicity and carcinogenicity of nickel in its target cell, human bronchial epithelial cells. Thus, the goal of this study was to investigate the effects of particulate nickel in human lung epithelial cells. We found that nickel subsulfide induced concentration- and time-dependent increases in both cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in human lung epithelial cells (BEP2D). Chronic exposure to nickel subsulfide readily induced cellular transformation, inducing 2.55, 2.9 and 2.35 foci per dish after exposure to 1, 2.5 and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide, respectively. Sixty-one, 100 and 70 percent of the foci isolated from 1, 2.5, and 5 μg/cm2 nickel subsulfide treatments formed colonies in soft agar and the degree of soft agar colony growth increased in a concentration-dependent manner. Thus, chronic exposure to particulate nickel induces genotoxicity and cellular transformation in human lung epithelial cells.
Keywords: particulate nickel; nickel subsulfide; chromosome damage; transformation
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MDPI and ACS Style
Holmes, A.L.; The, T.; Thompson, K.; Mason, M.; Kandpal, S.; Zheng, T.; Wise, J.P., Sr. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells. Toxics 2013, 1, 46-59.
Holmes AL, The T, Thompson K, Mason M, Kandpal S, Zheng T, Wise JP, Sr. Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells. Toxics. 2013; 1(1):46-59.
Holmes, Amie L.; The, Therry; Thompson, Kelsey; Mason, Michael; Kandpal, Sanjeev; Zheng, Tongzhang; Wise, John P., Sr. 2013. "Chronic Exposure to Particulate Nickel Induces Neoplastic Transformation in Human Lung Epithelial Cells." Toxics 1, no. 1: 46-59.