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Foods 2017, 6(7), 54; doi:10.3390/foods6070054

Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model

1
Food Science & Technology Department, Faculty of Agriculture, University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Ghana
2
Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Molecular Biology, Faculty of Agriculture, University for Development Studies, Nyankpala, Ghana
3
Department of Life & Sports Science, Faculty of Engineering and Science, University of Greenwich at Medway, Central Avenue Chatham Maritime, Kent ME4 4TB, UK
4
International Potato Centre, Kumasi, Ghana
These authors contributed equally to this work.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 8 May 2017 / Revised: 27 June 2017 / Accepted: 4 July 2017 / Published: 22 July 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Abstract

Dark green leafy vegetables (DGLVs) are considered as important sources of iron and vitamin A. However, iron concentration may not indicate bioaccessibility. The objectives of this study were to compare the nutrient content and iron bioaccessibility of five sweet potato cultivars, including three orange-fleshed types, with other commonly consumed DGLVs in Ghana: cocoyam, corchorus, baobab, kenaf and moringa, using the in vitro digestion/Caco-2 cell model. Moringa had the highest numbers of iron absorption enhancers on an “as-would-be-eaten” basis, β-carotene (14169 μg/100 g; p < 0.05) and ascorbic acid (46.30 mg/100 g; p < 0.001), and the best iron bioaccessibility (10.28 ng ferritin/mg protein). Baobab and an orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves had a lower iron bioaccessibility (6.51 and 6.76 ng ferritin/mg protein, respectively) compared with that of moringa, although these three greens contained similar (p > 0.05) iron (averaging 4.18 mg/100 g) and β-carotene levels. The ascorbic acid concentration of 25.50 mg/100 g in the cooked baobab did not enhance the iron bioaccessibility. Baobab and the orange-fleshed sweet potato with purplish young leaves contained the highest levels of total polyphenols (1646.75 and 506.95 mg Gallic Acid Equivalents/100 g, respectively; p < 0.001). This suggests that iron bioaccessibility in greens cannot be inferred based on the mineral concentration. Based on the similarity of the iron bioaccessibility of the sweet potato leaves and cocoyam leaf (a widely-promoted “nutritious” DGLV in Ghana), the former greens have an added advantage of increasing the dietary intake of provitamin A. View Full-Text
Keywords: β-carotene; Caco-2 cell; iron bioaccessibility; leafy vegetable; polyphenols β-carotene; Caco-2 cell; iron bioaccessibility; leafy vegetable; polyphenols
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MDPI and ACS Style

Amagloh, F.K.; Atuna, R.A.; McBride, R.; Carey, E.E.; Christides, T. Nutrient and Total Polyphenol Contents of Dark Green Leafy Vegetables, and Estimation of Their Iron Bioaccessibility Using the In Vitro Digestion/Caco-2 Cell Model. Foods 2017, 6, 54.

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