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Foods 2017, 6(11), 98; doi:10.3390/foods6110098

Detection of Lard in Cocoa Butter—Its Fatty Acid Composition, Triacylglycerol Profiles, and Thermal Characteristics

1
Halal Products Research Institute, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
2
Department of Microbiology, Faculty of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
3
Bioprocessing and Biomanufacturing Research Center, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
4
Institute of Bioscience, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43300 Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
5
Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
6
Department of Animal Science, Faculty of Agriculture, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
7
Institute of Tropical Agriculture and Food Security, Universiti Putra Malaysia, 43400 UPM Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia
*
Authors to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 25 September 2017 / Revised: 15 October 2017 / Accepted: 16 October 2017 / Published: 9 November 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Qualitative Analysis of Food Products)
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Abstract

The present study investigates the detection of lard in cocoa butter through changes in fatty acids composition, triacylglycerols profile, and thermal characteristics. Cocoa butter was mixed with 1% to 30% (v/v) of lard and analyzed using a gas chromatography flame ionization detector, high performance liquid chromatography, and differential scanning calorimetry. The results revealed that the mixing of lard in cocoa butter showed an increased amount of oleic acid in the cocoa butter while there was a decrease in the amount of palmitic acid and stearic acids. The amount of POS, SOS, and POP also decreased with the addition of lard. A heating thermogram from the DSC analysis showed that as the concentration of lard increased from 3% to 30%, two minor peaks at −26 °C and 34.5 °C started to appear and a minor peak at 34.5 °C gradually overlapped with the neighbouring major peak. A cooling thermogram of the above adulterated cocoa butter showed a minor peak shift to a lower temperature of −36 °C to −41.5 °C. Values from this study could be used as a basis for the identification of lard from other fats in the food authentication process. View Full-Text
Keywords: cocoa butter; lard; fatty acids methyl ester; triacylglycerol; adulteration; food cocoa butter; lard; fatty acids methyl ester; triacylglycerol; adulteration; food
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MDPI and ACS Style

Azir, M.; Abbasiliasi, S.; Tengku Ibrahim, T.A.; Manaf, Y.N.A.; Sazili, A.Q.; Mustafa, S. Detection of Lard in Cocoa Butter—Its Fatty Acid Composition, Triacylglycerol Profiles, and Thermal Characteristics. Foods 2017, 6, 98.

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