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Dent. J., Volume 4, Issue 4 (December 2016)

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Assessing the Attitudes and Clinical Practices of Ohio Dentists Treating Patients with Dental Anxiety
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 33; doi:10.3390/dj4040033
Received: 7 July 2016 / Revised: 16 August 2016 / Accepted: 7 September 2016 / Published: 30 September 2016
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Abstract
Dental anxiety (DA) negatively affects patients’ oral and overall health. This study explored attitudes and clinical practices of licensed Ohio general dentists who treat patients with DA. Methods: An anonymous self-administered mail survey was sent to 500 general dentists licensed and practicing in
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Dental anxiety (DA) negatively affects patients’ oral and overall health. This study explored attitudes and clinical practices of licensed Ohio general dentists who treat patients with DA. Methods: An anonymous self-administered mail survey was sent to 500 general dentists licensed and practicing in Ohio. Responses to 21 pre-coded questions were analyzed. Frequencies were examined; cross-tabs, Chi-Square, and Fischer’s Exact Test were calculated for statements according to dentists’ gender. Alpha was set at p = 0.05. Results: Nearly all respondents treated anxious patients; males were more likely to find it challenging than females. Dentists were most familiar with distraction, although half found nitrous oxide to be an effective tool. Female dentists were more likely than males to be familiar with anxiolytics and find them effective. Conclusion: Overall, Ohio general dentists are most familiar with using distraction and nitrous oxide during appointments for anxious patients. Gender differences exist in attitudes towards anxiolytic use for patients with DA. Practice Implications: By identifying techniques that are comfortable for patient and practitioner, oral health disparities associated with DA may be reduced. Full article
Open AccessArticle Impact of Soft Tissue Pathophysiology in the Development and Maintenance of Bisphosphonate-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (BRONJ)
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 36; doi:10.3390/dj4040036
Received: 18 August 2016 / Revised: 3 October 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 25 October 2016
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Abstract
Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing
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Since the first description of bisphosphonate-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (BRONJ), numerous research groups have focused on possible pathological mechanisms including the suppression of the bone turnover of the jaw, antiangiogenic effects and soft tissue toxicity. In our review we focused on summarizing the role of the soft tissues in the development and progression of BRONJ. The biological behavior of fibroblasts can be significantly influenced by bisphosphonates (BP) such as a concentration dependent reduction of cell viability. High concentrations of BP can induce apoptosis and necrosis of the cells. Comparable effects could be detected for keratinocytes. Compared to non-nitrogen containing bisphosphonates, nitrogen-containing BP have worse effects on cell biology by blocking the mevalonate pathway. Further, the cell architecture and expression levels of several genes and proteins are significantly disturbed by BP. These inhibitory effects of BP are in accordance with BP-related reduced angiogenesis and neovascularization and could underline the hypothesis that inhibition of fibroblasts and keratinocytes results in delayed wound healing and can induce and trigger BRONJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
Open AccessArticle Degree of Conversion and Oxygen-Inhibited Layer Effect of Three Dental Adhesives
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 37; doi:10.3390/dj4040037
Received: 15 August 2016 / Revised: 22 September 2016 / Accepted: 3 October 2016 / Published: 27 October 2016
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Abstract
This study investigated the effect of the oxygen-inhibited layer on the degree of conversion (DC) of three dental adhesives, comparing two different protocols. Quartz–tungsten–halogen (QTH) light curing and light-emitting diode (LED) were used to cure three adhesives: OptiBond All in One (OAIO), Adper
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This study investigated the effect of the oxygen-inhibited layer on the degree of conversion (DC) of three dental adhesives, comparing two different protocols. Quartz–tungsten–halogen (QTH) light curing and light-emitting diode (LED) were used to cure three adhesives: OptiBond All in One (OAIO), Adper Easy Bond (AEB) and ExciteF (EXF). The DC was calculated utilizing Fourier Transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) (n = 12). The two protocols used were as follows: (i) prevent the oxygen-inhibited layer using a Mylar plastic strip pushed onto each bonding adhesive; and (ii) polymerize samples without a plastic strip. The data was analyzed statistically by a three-way ANOVA, and Tukey Test (a = 0.05). The presence of an oxygen-inhibited layer reduced the DC of the adhesives by 64% for EXF, 46% for AEB and 32% for OAIO. This study suggests that there are differences among the oxygen-inhibited layers present for the adhesives tested. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Environmental Factors Influencing Adoption of Canadian Guidelines on Smoking Cessation in Dental Healthcare Settings in Quebec: A Qualitative Study of Dentists’ Perspectives
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 40; doi:10.3390/dj4040040
Received: 29 August 2016 / Revised: 24 October 2016 / Accepted: 25 October 2016 / Published: 3 November 2016
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Abstract
Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an
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Background: This study aimed to understand dentists’ perspective of the environmental determinants which positively or negatively influence the implementation of Canadian smoking cessation clinical practice guidelines (5As: Ask-Advise-Assess-Assist-Arrange) in private dental clinics in Quebec. Methods: This study used a qualitative design and an integrative conceptual framework composed of three theoretical perspectives. Data collection was conducted in individual semi-directed interviews with 20 private dentists lasting between 35 and 45 min. The audio-recorded data were transcribed verbatim, followed by a directed content analysis. Results: Some of the barriers identified to counselling in smoking cessation were lack of time, patient attitude, lack of prescription of nicotine replacement therapies, lack of reimbursement, and the lack of training of the dental team. Enablers cited by participants were the style of dentist’s leadership, the availability of community, human and material resources, the perception of counselling as a professional duty, and the culture of dental medicine. In addition to these variables, dentists’ attitude and behaviour were affected by different organisations giving initial or continual training to dentists, governmental policies, and the compatibility of Canadian smoking cessation guidelines with the practice of dentistry. Conclusion: Our findings will inform the development of smoking cessation interventions in dental healthcare settings. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Quality of Life and Poor Oral Health: A Comparison of Postmenopausal Women
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 44; doi:10.3390/dj4040044
Received: 9 August 2016 / Revised: 14 November 2016 / Accepted: 16 November 2016 / Published: 24 November 2016
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Abstract
Inter-relationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life, such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with
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Inter-relationships between traditional dental variables are becoming more evident in far reaching aspects of life, such as psychosocial interaction, self-esteem, overall health and even occupational performance. This study compares quality of life (QoL) in postmenopausal women (PMW) with poor oral health (POH) with QoL in PMW with good oral health. A total of 200 randomly recruited PMW received a dental evaluation and completed the Utian Quality of Life Survey. The participants were divided into POH and healthy groups based on a dental exam. Mean scores were calculated for each QoL item, domain and the overall summary score. For each of the four parameters for periodontitis diagnosis, periodontitis b s patients’ QoL outcomes were compared to those of healthy patients using a T-test with a threshold of significance at p < 0.05. QoL in all fields measured was significantly poorer in the POH patients compared to the healthy patients: occupational score (19.95 ± 5.35 vs. 27.56 ± 6.13), health score (18.02 ± 8.23 vs. 26.59 ± 6.45), emotional score (15.68 ± 10.22 vs. 21.15 ± 9.15), sexual score (6.2 ± 5.98 vs. 10.02 ± 5.35), and total score (60.21 ± 25.85 vs. 84.26 ± 22.35). This study finds that PMW with POH report significantly poorer quality of life. Clinicians caring for PMW should be aware that oral health impacts QoL and make appropriate referral decisions for patients’ dental care. Full article
Open AccessArticle Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (ONJ) after Bisphosphonate Treatment in Patients with Multiple Myeloma: Decreasing ONJ Incidence after Adoption of Preventive Measures
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 45; doi:10.3390/dj4040045
Received: 31 August 2016 / Revised: 6 November 2016 / Accepted: 14 November 2016 / Published: 1 December 2016
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Abstract
Bisphosphonates (BPs) are administered to Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients with bone lytic lesion. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is a complication reported since 2003 in patients treated with intravenous (IV) BPs such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate, with 6%–26.3% frequency in early literature
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Bisphosphonates (BPs) are administered to Multiple Myeloma (MM) patients with bone lytic lesion. Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) is a complication reported since 2003 in patients treated with intravenous (IV) BPs such as zoledronic acid and pamidronate, with 6%–26.3% frequency in early literature series, before some preventive measures were recommended. We evaluated the occurrence of ONJ with and without dental preventive measures in MM patients treated with BPs in our centre between 1996 and 2015. Since 2005, MM patients (already under treatment or before treatment) underwent a baseline mouth assessment (dental visit, Rx orthopantomography, and eventual tooth avulsion or dental care if necessary) and were followed by a multidisciplinary team. We reviewed the charts of 119 MM patients receiving IV BPs, classified into 3 groups: (a) “historic group” (21 patients who had started BP treatment in years before the awareness of ONJ); (b) “screening group” (20 patients starting BPs without baseline evaluation); and (c) “prevention group” (78 patients starting therapy only after baseline preventive assessment and eventual dental care measures). ONJ was observed in 3/21 patients (14.2%) from group a, in 2/20 patients (10%) from group b, and in no patients from group c (0%). Notably, the median number of IV BP administrations decreased after 2005. Our data confirmed a meaningful reduction of ONJ risk in MM patients treated with BPs if preventive measures are applied. Both implementation of prevention measures and reduction of cumulative doses of IV BPs could have contributed to a decreased incidence of ONJ. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)

Review

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Open AccessReview Prevalence of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw in Patients with Breast Cancer, Prostate Cancer, and Multiple Myeloma
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 32; doi:10.3390/dj4040032
Received: 2 August 2016 / Revised: 27 August 2016 / Accepted: 19 September 2016 / Published: 27 September 2016
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Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is a known side-effect of antiresorptive therapy in patients with malignant diseases. Nevertheless, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown and published prevalences show a significant range. The aim of the presented paper was to assess the prevalence of
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Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw is a known side-effect of antiresorptive therapy in patients with malignant diseases. Nevertheless, the exact pathogenesis is still unknown and published prevalences show a significant range. The aim of the presented paper was to assess the prevalence of osteonecrosis (ONJ) in breast cancer, prostate cancer, and multiple myeloma patients receiving parenteral antiresorptive therapy. For this reason a PubMed search was performed and 69 matching articles comprising 29,437 patients were included in the analysis. Nine-hundred fifty-one cases of jaw necrosis were described. The overall ONJ-prevalence was 2.09% in the breast cancer group, 3.8% in the prostate cancer group, and 5.16% for multiple myeloma patients. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
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Open AccessReview Current Controversies on the Pathogenesis of Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaw
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 38; doi:10.3390/dj4040038
Received: 11 October 2016 / Revised: 11 October 2016 / Accepted: 21 October 2016 / Published: 28 October 2016
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Abstract
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) was first reported more than a decade ago. Since then, numerous cases have been diagnosed. Currently, there are three groups of drugs related to MRONJ: bisphosphonates, denosumab and anti-angiogenic drugs. As MRONJ can lead to debilitating clinical
[...] Read more.
Medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaw (MRONJ) was first reported more than a decade ago. Since then, numerous cases have been diagnosed. Currently, there are three groups of drugs related to MRONJ: bisphosphonates, denosumab and anti-angiogenic drugs. As MRONJ can lead to debilitating clinical sequels and limited effective treatment options are available, much research has been done in understanding its pathophysiology. Until now, the exact pathogenesis of MRONJ has not been fully elucidated. While history of invasive dental procedures or local trauma may be present, some cases occur spontaneously without any preceding factors. This review aims to examine and discuss the three main hypotheses for the pathogenesis of MRONJ, namely suppressed bone turnover, cellular toxicity and infection. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
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Open AccessReview Role of Teriparatide in Medication-Related Osteonecrosis of the Jaws (MRONJ)
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 41; doi:10.3390/dj4040041
Received: 20 September 2016 / Revised: 18 October 2016 / Accepted: 18 October 2016 / Published: 9 November 2016
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Abstract
While the optimal treatment concept of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is still in debate, several adjunct therapies have been introduced. Among these adjunctive measures, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH, teriparatide) seems to be the most promising treatment modality. Several studies have
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While the optimal treatment concept of medication-related osteonecrosis of the jaws (MRONJ) is still in debate, several adjunct therapies have been introduced. Among these adjunctive measures, recombinant human parathyroid hormone (rhPTH, teriparatide) seems to be the most promising treatment modality. Several studies have presented the beneficial effect of short-term teriparatide; they have shown an improved level of bone markers and radiographic evidence of bone healing. Although clinical validation by a controlled trial with prospective design would be essential, short-term teripratide therapy would be a good treatment option for MRONJ patients with impaired bone remodeling. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)

Other

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Open AccessTechnical Note Hardness, Cohesiveness, and Adhesiveness of Oral Moisturizers and Denture Adhesives: Selection Criteria for Denture Wearers
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 34; doi:10.3390/dj4040034
Received: 19 August 2016 / Accepted: 23 September 2016 / Published: 3 October 2016
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Abstract
The mechanical properties of seven denture adhesives and eight oral moisturizers, all of which are commercially available, were evaluated using a texture profile analysis. A new assessment chart is proposed for the selection criteria of denture adhesive and oral moisturizers using a radar
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The mechanical properties of seven denture adhesives and eight oral moisturizers, all of which are commercially available, were evaluated using a texture profile analysis. A new assessment chart is proposed for the selection criteria of denture adhesive and oral moisturizers using a radar chart with three axes: hardness, cohesiveness, and adhesiveness. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Magnet-Retained Two-Mini-Implant Overdenture: Clinical and Mechanical Consideration
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 35; doi:10.3390/dj4040035
Received: 4 August 2016 / Revised: 20 September 2016 / Accepted: 29 September 2016 / Published: 10 October 2016
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Abstract
Two-implant overdentures have become the accepted treatment for restoring mandibular edentulism. The dimensions of regular implants sometimes limit their use, such as in the case of narrow ridges. Mini-implants with reduced diameters (less than 3.0 mm) enable insertion into narrow ridges. A magnet-retained
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Two-implant overdentures have become the accepted treatment for restoring mandibular edentulism. The dimensions of regular implants sometimes limit their use, such as in the case of narrow ridges. Mini-implants with reduced diameters (less than 3.0 mm) enable insertion into narrow ridges. A magnet-retained two-mini-implant overdenture system was developed and is described in this paper. Additionally, we describe a clinical mandibular procedure using the system and evaluate its biomechanical performance. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Advances in Implant Dentistry)
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Open AccessCase Report Delayed Diagnosis of Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (ONJ) Associated with Bevacizumab Therapy in Colorectal Cancer Patients: Report of Two Cases
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 39; doi:10.3390/dj4040039
Received: 7 September 2016 / Revised: 22 October 2016 / Accepted: 24 October 2016 / Published: 29 October 2016
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Abstract
Medication-induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) has been reported not only after use of antiresorptive agents (bisphosphonates and denosumab), but also in cancer patients receiving antiangiogenic agents, alone or combined with antiresorptive drugs. We report two cases of MRONJ observed in colorectal cancer
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Medication-induced Osteonecrosis of the Jaw (MRONJ) has been reported not only after use of antiresorptive agents (bisphosphonates and denosumab), but also in cancer patients receiving antiangiogenic agents, alone or combined with antiresorptive drugs. We report two cases of MRONJ observed in colorectal cancer patients after bevacizumab therapy only. MRONJ was diagnosed, respectively, two and seven months after a tooth extraction; both the patients had received two courses of bevacizumab infusions (for a total of 29 and 10 administrations, respectively). We discuss if tooth extraction during or after antiangiogenic therapy could be a potential trigger of MRONJ, but also if an underlying bone disease not evident before oral surgery might be a possible cause. A careful drug history has to be registered by dental specialists in cancer patients before oral surgery and adequate imaging might be obtained to avoid a delayed diagnosis. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue New Cancer and Osteoporosis Therapies and Osteocrosis of the Jaws)
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Open AccessCase Report Custom Made Replacement of the Mandibular Condyle in a Case of Fibrous Dysplasia with Cystic Degeneration; A Case Report
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 42; doi:10.3390/dj4040042
Received: 19 August 2016 / Revised: 7 November 2016 / Accepted: 9 November 2016 / Published: 15 November 2016
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Abstract
This paper describes a rare case of fibrous dysplasia with cystic degeneration in the mandibular condyle. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations are discussed. A 40-year old woman presented with pain near the region of her right ear. Physical and radiographic examination showed no abnormalities
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This paper describes a rare case of fibrous dysplasia with cystic degeneration in the mandibular condyle. Diagnostic and therapeutic considerations are discussed. A 40-year old woman presented with pain near the region of her right ear. Physical and radiographic examination showed no abnormalities besides the presence of a mixed radiopaque/radiolucent expansive lesion of the right condyle. Pathologic examination showed high bone-turnover with bone formation. Bone scintigraphy showed a monostotic active fibrous lesion in the right part of the mandible. Bisphosphonate treatment did not sufficiently treat the patient’s symptoms and physiotherapy to treat craniomandibular dysfunction as a factor in the pain was also unsuccessful. The patient later developed an acute external otitis due to a narrowed outer ear canal and had to be admitted to the hospital for treatment with intravenous antibiotics. Approximately two years after first presentation, resection of the affected bone (condylectomy) and reconstruction with a custom total joint prosthesis was indicated due to repeated functional deficits with considerable morbidity. Pathologic examination of the resected mandibular condyle showed increased bone formation including formation of neocortex and some cystic formation. This was diagnosed as fibrous dysplasia with cystic degeneration. Approximately two years after surgery, the patient functioned well. Full article
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Open AccessCase Report Bilateral Transverse Mandibular Second Molars: A Case Report
Dent. J. 2016, 4(4), 43; doi:10.3390/dj4040043
Received: 15 September 2016 / Revised: 5 November 2016 / Accepted: 17 November 2016 / Published: 22 November 2016
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Abstract
Impaction of mandibular second permanent molars is a rare occurrence, with prevalence rates reported to be between 0.65% and 2.0%. In the absence of systemic conditions, impactions are usually unilateral. There appears to be no consensus as to the optimal treatment for impacted
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Impaction of mandibular second permanent molars is a rare occurrence, with prevalence rates reported to be between 0.65% and 2.0%. In the absence of systemic conditions, impactions are usually unilateral. There appears to be no consensus as to the optimal treatment for impacted mandibular second molars and treatment plans will be based upon the individual case. Treatment may involve orthodontics and/or various surgical techniques, and early diagnosis is important. This paper presents an unusual case of bilateral transverse impaction of both mandibular second and third molars that was diagnosed at 18 years of age. All impacted molars were extracted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Management and Health Care in Pediatric Dentistry)
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