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Open AccessArticle
Chromatography 2015, 2(1), 1-18; doi:10.3390/chromatography2010001

Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS

1
Interdepartmental Toxicology Program, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
2
Department of Agricultural and Biosystems Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
3
Department of Civil, Construction and Environmental Engineering, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
4
Department of Food Science and Human Nutrition, Iowa State University, Ames, IA 50011, USA
5
DuPont Crop Protection, Stine-Haskell Research Center, 1090 Elkton Road, Newark, Delaware, DE 19714, USA
6
Department of Environmental Engineering, Mersin University, Mersin 33110, Turkey
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Mary Boyce
Received: 3 December 2014 / Accepted: 19 December 2014 / Published: 24 December 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Solid Phase Micro-Extraction)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1108 KB, uploaded 24 December 2014]   |  

Abstract

Fruit leathers (FLs) production produces some not-to-specification material, which contains valuable ingredients like fruit pulp, sugars and acidulates. Recovery of FL for product recycling requires decolorization. In earlier research, we proved the efficiency of an ozone-based decolorization process; however, it produces carbonyls as major byproducts, which could be of concern. A headspace solid-phase microextraction with on-fiber derivatization followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was developed for 10 carbonyls analysis in ozonated FL solution/suspension. Effects of dopant concentration, derivatization temperature and time were studied. The adapted method was used to analyze ozonated FL solution/suspension samples. Dopant concentration and derivatization temperature were optimized to 17 mg/mL and 60 °C, respectively. Competitive extraction was studied, and 5 s extraction time was used to avoid non-linear derivatization of 2-furfural. The detection limits (LODs) for target carbonyls ranged from 0.016 and 0.030 µg/L. A much lower LOD (0.016 ppb) for 2-furfural was achieved compared with 6 and 35 ppb in previous studies. Analysis results confirmed the robustness of the adapted method for quantification of carbonyls in recycled process water treated with ozone-based decolorization. Ethanal, hexanal, 2-furfural, and benzaldehyde were identified as byproducts of known toxicity but all found below levels for concern. View Full-Text
Keywords: carbonyl compounds; on-fiber derivatization SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; ozone-based decolorization; PFBHA; processed aqueous solution/suspension; fruit pulp carbonyl compounds; on-fiber derivatization SPME-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry; ozone-based decolorization; PFBHA; processed aqueous solution/suspension; fruit pulp
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Zhu, W.; Koziel, J.A.; Cai, L.; Özsoy, H.D.; van Leeuwen, J.H. Quantification of Carbonyl Compounds Generated from Ozone-Based Food Colorants Decomposition Using On-Fiber Derivatization-SPME-GC-MS. Chromatography 2015, 2, 1-18.

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