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Chemosensors 2014, 2(3), 193-206; doi:10.3390/chemosensors2030193
Review

Toward Non-Enzymatic Ultrasensitive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms by Optical Methods

Received: 2 February 2014; in revised form: 7 July 2014 / Accepted: 8 July 2014 / Published: 22 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acid Probes)
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Abstract: Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) are single nucleotide variations which comprise the most wide spread source of genetic diversity in the genome. Currently, SNPs serve as markers for genetic predispositions, clinically evident disorders and diverse drug responses. Present SNP diagnostics are primarily based on enzymatic reactions in different formats including sequencing, polymerase-chain reaction (PCR) and microarrays. In these assays, the enzymes are applied to address the required sensitivity and specificity when detecting SNP. On the other hand, the development of enzyme-free, simple and robust SNP sensing methods is in a constant focus in research and industry as such assays allow rapid and reproducible SNP diagnostics without the need for expensive equipment and reagents. An ideal method for detection of SNP would entail mixing a DNA or RNA target with a probe to directly obtain a signal. Current assays are still not fulfilling these requirements, although remarkable progress has been achieved in recent years. In this review, current SNP sensing approaches are described with a main focus on recently introduced direct, enzyme-free and ultrasensitive SNP sensing by optical methods.
Keywords: SNP; diagnostics; PCR; enzyme-free assays; fluorescence; nanoparticles; locked nucleic acids; polyaromatic hydrocarbons SNP; diagnostics; PCR; enzyme-free assays; fluorescence; nanoparticles; locked nucleic acids; polyaromatic hydrocarbons
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Astakhova, K. Toward Non-Enzymatic Ultrasensitive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms by Optical Methods. Chemosensors 2014, 2, 193-206.

AMA Style

Astakhova K. Toward Non-Enzymatic Ultrasensitive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms by Optical Methods. Chemosensors. 2014; 2(3):193-206.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Astakhova, Kira. 2014. "Toward Non-Enzymatic Ultrasensitive Identification of Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms by Optical Methods." Chemosensors 2, no. 3: 193-206.

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