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Chemosensors 2014, 2(4), 267-286; doi:10.3390/chemosensors2040267

Effect of Cholesterol Anchoring Group on the Properties of G-Quadruplex-Based FRET Probes for Potassium Ion

Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznan 61-614, Poland
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Received: 31 August 2014 / Revised: 13 October 2014 / Accepted: 15 October 2014 / Published: 21 November 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Nucleic Acid Probes)
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Abstract

In this study we report on the spectral properties and G-quadruplex folding ability of fluorescent oligonucleotide probes modified by the attachment of a cholesterol moiety. These probes were designed and studied in order to verify their potential as potassium-sensing devices that can be incorporated into the cellular membrane. The 19-meric guanine-rich deoxyoligonucleotide was labeled with reporter fluorescent FRET groups (FAM and TAMRA) and a cholesterol anchor was attached using different approaches. The probes exhibited abilities to fold into a quadruplex structure and to bind metal cations (Na+ and K+). In an unbound state, both termini of the oligonucleotide are separated, thus fluorophores do not interact with each other and the probe exhibits an unperturbed fluorescence spectrum. In the presence of K+, the quadruplex structure is developed such that it enables fluorophores to be arranged in close proximity, causing generation of a different fluorescence spectrum (FRET signal). Folding properties of probes and their spectral behavior were examined by recording the UV-Vis, fluorescence emission, and excitation spectra (FRET efficiency), and the temperature stability of G-quadruplex structures adopted by probes (melting profiles). Fluorescence energy transfer efficiency increased with increases in sodium or potassium ion concentrations in an aqueous solution, which indicated that the probes retained their cation-binding properties and could be promising candidates for potassium sensing at the cell membrane interface. View Full-Text
Keywords: cholesterol anchor; FRET; G-quadruplex; fluorescent oligonucleotide; potassium sensing cholesterol anchor; FRET; G-quadruplex; fluorescent oligonucleotide; potassium sensing
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Swiatkowska, A.; Juskowiak, B. Effect of Cholesterol Anchoring Group on the Properties of G-Quadruplex-Based FRET Probes for Potassium Ion. Chemosensors 2014, 2, 267-286.

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