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J. Sens. Actuator Netw., Volume 2, Issue 1 (March 2013), Pages 1-171

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Cooperative Spectrum Sensing Using Eigenvalue Fusion for OFDMA and Other Wideband Signals
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 1-24; doi:10.3390/jsan2010001
Received: 31 October 2012 / Revised: 14 December 2012 / Accepted: 19 December 2012 / Published: 7 January 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (559 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of OFDMA and other wideband signals in the context of centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio (CR) applications. The approach is based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance [...] Read more.
In this paper, we propose a new approach for the detection of OFDMA and other wideband signals in the context of centralized cooperative spectrum sensing for cognitive radio (CR) applications. The approach is based on the eigenvalues of the received signal covariance matrix whose samples are in the frequency domain. Soft combining of the eigenvalues at the fusion center is the main novelty. This combining strategy is applied to variants of four test statistics for binary hypothesis test, namely: the eigenvalue-based generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), the maximum-minimum eigenvalue detection (MMED), the maximum eigenvalue detection (MED) and the energy detection (ED). It is shown that the eigenvalue fusion can outperform schemes based on decision fusion and sample fusion. A tradeoff is also established between complexity and volume of data sent to the fusion center in all combining strategies. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Detour Path Angular Information Based Range-Free Localization in Wireless Sensor Network
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 25-45; doi:10.3390/jsan2010025
Received: 14 November 2012 / Revised: 4 January 2013 / Accepted: 8 January 2013 / Published: 17 January 2013
Cited by 4 | PDF Full-text (397 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Range-free localization algorithm continues to be an important and challenging research topic in anisotropic Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Designing range-free localization algorithms without considering obstacles or holes inside the network area does not reflect the real world conditions. In this paper, we [...] Read more.
Range-free localization algorithm continues to be an important and challenging research topic in anisotropic Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs). Designing range-free localization algorithms without considering obstacles or holes inside the network area does not reflect the real world conditions. In this paper, we have proposed Detour Path Angular Information (DPAI) based sensor localization algorithm to accurately estimate the distance between an anchor node and a sensor node. We utilized the Euclidean distance and transmission path distance among anchor nodes to calculate the angle of the transmission path between them one by one. Then the estimated hop distance is adjusted by the angle between the anchor pairs. Based on the angle of the detoured path (which is the key factor for accuracy), our algorithm determines whether the path is straight or detoured by anisotropic factors. Our proposed algorithm does not require any global knowledge of network topology to tolerate the network anisotropy nor require high sensor node density for satisfactory localization accuracy. Extensive simulations are performed and the results are observed to be in good agreement with the theoretical analysis. DPAI achieved average sensor localization accuracy better than 0.3r in isotropic network and 0.35r in anisotropic network when the sensor density is above 8. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Performance of Cooperative Eigenvalue Spectrum Sensing with a Realistic Receiver Model under Impulsive Noise
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 46-69; doi:10.3390/jsan2010046
Received: 25 October 2012 / Revised: 28 December 2012 / Accepted: 31 December 2012 / Published: 22 January 2013
Cited by 6 | PDF Full-text (1188 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text | Supplementary Files
Abstract
In this paper we present a unified comparison of the performance of four detection techniques for centralized data-fusion cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks under impulsive noise, namely, the eigenvalue-based generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), the maximum-minimum eigenvalue detection (MMED), the [...] Read more.
In this paper we present a unified comparison of the performance of four detection techniques for centralized data-fusion cooperative spectrum sensing in cognitive radio networks under impulsive noise, namely, the eigenvalue-based generalized likelihood ratio test (GLRT), the maximum-minimum eigenvalue detection (MMED), the maximum eigenvalue detection (MED), and the energy detection (ED). We consider two system models: an implementation-oriented model that includes the most relevant signal processing tasks realized by a real cognitive radio receiver, and the theoretical model conventionally adopted in the literature. We show that under the implementation-oriented model, GLRT and MMED are quite robust under impulsive noise, whereas the performance of MED and ED is drastically degraded. We also show that performance under the conventional model can be too pessimistic if impulsive noise is present, whereas it can be too optimistic in the absence of this impairment. We also discuss the fact that impulsive noise is not such a severe problem when we take into account the more realistic implementation-oriented model. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Malicious Node Detection Using a Dual Threshold in Wireless Sensor Networks
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 70-84; doi:10.3390/jsan2010070
Received: 8 December 2012 / Accepted: 24 January 2013 / Published: 5 February 2013
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (505 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Sensor networks for various event detection applications cannot function effectively if they are vulnerable to attacks. Malicious nodes can generate incorrect readings and misleading reports in such a way that event detection accuracy and false alarm rates are unacceptably low and high, [...] Read more.
Sensor networks for various event detection applications cannot function effectively if they are vulnerable to attacks. Malicious nodes can generate incorrect readings and misleading reports in such a way that event detection accuracy and false alarm rates are unacceptably low and high, respectively. In this paper, we present a malicious node detection scheme for wireless sensor networks. Unlike others using a single threshold, the proposed scheme employs two thresholds to cope with the strong trade-off between event detection accuracy and false alarm rate, resulting in improved malicious node detection performance. In addition, each sensor node maintains the trust values of its neighboring nodes to reflect their behavior in decision-making. Computer simulation shows that the proposed scheme achieves high malicious node detection accuracy without sacrificing normal sensor nodes and outperforms the scheme using a single threshold. Full article
Open AccessArticle Hall Effect Sensors Design, Integration and Behavior Analysis
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 85-97; doi:10.3390/jsan2010085
Received: 31 December 2012 / Revised: 30 January 2013 / Accepted: 1 February 2013 / Published: 8 February 2013
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (584 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both [...] Read more.
The present paper focuses on various aspects regarding Hall Effect sensors’ design, integration, and behavior analysis. In order to assess their performance, different Hall Effect geometries were tested for Hall voltage, sensitivity, offset, and temperature drift. The residual offset was measured both with an automated measurement setup and by manual switching of the individual phases. To predict Hall sensors performance prior to integration, three-dimensional physical simulations were performed. Full article
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Open AccessArticle User and Machine Authentication and Authorization Infrastructure for Distributed Wireless Sensor Network Testbeds
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 109-121; doi:10.3390/jsan2010109
Received: 24 December 2012 / Revised: 12 February 2013 / Accepted: 17 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (1078 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI) is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open [...] Read more.
The intention of an authentication and authorization infrastructure (AAI) is to simplify and unify access to different web resources. With a single login, a user can access web applications at multiple organizations. The Shibboleth authentication and authorization infrastructure is a standards-based, open source software package for web single sign-on (SSO) across or within organizational boundaries. It allows service providers to make fine-grained authorization decisions for individual access of protected online resources. The Shibboleth system is a widely used AAI, but only supports protection of browser-based web resources. We have implemented a Shibboleth AAI extension to protect web services using Simple Object Access Protocol (SOAP). Besides user authentication for browser-based web resources, this extension also provides user and machine authentication for web service-based resources. Although implemented for a Shibboleth AAI, the architecture can be easily adapted to other AAIs. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)
Open AccessArticle Adaptive Communication Techniques for the Internet of Things
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 122-155; doi:10.3390/jsan2010122
Received: 16 January 2013 / Revised: 16 February 2013 / Accepted: 28 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 1 | PDF Full-text (534 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The vision for the Internet of Things (IoT) demands that material objects acquire communications and computation capabilities and become able to automatically identify themselves through standard protocols and open systems, using the Internet as their foundation. Yet, several challenges still must be [...] Read more.
The vision for the Internet of Things (IoT) demands that material objects acquire communications and computation capabilities and become able to automatically identify themselves through standard protocols and open systems, using the Internet as their foundation. Yet, several challenges still must be addressed for this vision to become a reality. A core ingredient in such development is the ability of heterogeneous devices to communicate adaptively so as to make the best of limited spectrum availability and cope with competition which is inevitable as more and more objects connect to the system. This survey provides an overview of current developments in this area, placing emphasis on wireless sensor networks that can provide IoT capabilities for material objects and techniques that can be used in the context of systems employing low-power versions of the Internet Protocol (IP) stack. The survey introduces a conceptual model that facilitates the identification of opportunities for adaptation in each layer of the network stack. After a detailed discussion of specific approaches applicable to particular layers, we consider how sharing information across layers can facilitate further adaptation. We conclude with a discussion of future research directions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Internet of Things: Technologies and Applications)
Open AccessArticle “And Then, the Weekend Started”: Story of a WSN Deployment on a Construction Site
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 156-171; doi:10.3390/jsan2010156
Received: 5 January 2013 / Revised: 8 February 2013 / Accepted: 25 February 2013 / Published: 11 March 2013
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (2738 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are versatile monitoring systems that can provide a large amount of real-time data in scenarios where wired infrastructures are inapplicable or expensive. This technology is expected to be handled by domain experts, who perceive a WSN as a [...] Read more.
Wireless Sensor Networks (WSNs) are versatile monitoring systems that can provide a large amount of real-time data in scenarios where wired infrastructures are inapplicable or expensive. This technology is expected to be handled by domain experts, who perceive a WSN as a (promised to be) easy to deploy black box. This work presents the deployment experience of a WSN, as conducted by domain experts, in a ground improvement area. Building upon off-the-shelf solutions, a fuel cell powered gateway and 21 sensor devices measuring acceleration, inclination, temperature and barometric pressure were installed to monitor ground subsidence. We report about how poor GSM service, malfunctioning hardware, unknown communication patterns and obscure proprietary software required in-field ad-hoc solutions. Through the lessons learned, we look forward to investigating how to make the deployment of these systems an easier task. Full article

Review

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Open AccessReview A Survey of Sensor Web Services for the Smart Grid
J. Sens. Actuator Netw. 2013, 2(1), 98-108; doi:10.3390/jsan2010098
Received: 12 December 2012 / Revised: 26 January 2013 / Accepted: 9 February 2013 / Published: 6 March 2013
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (248 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The broad use ofWireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in various fields have resulted in growing demand for advanced data collection and querying mechanisms embedded in the sensor node. Sensor Web Services (SWS) have recently emerged as a promising tool to enable external machines [...] Read more.
The broad use ofWireless Sensor Networks (WSN) in various fields have resulted in growing demand for advanced data collection and querying mechanisms embedded in the sensor node. Sensor Web Services (SWS) have recently emerged as a promising tool to enable external machines to have access to the information collected by public sensor webs. Machine-to-machine interactions or wireless sensor and actor networks can take advantage of this platform-independent technology to develop diverse smart grid applications. In this survey, we first briefly present the state of the art in SWS technology by describing the techniques for customizing web services to fit the sensor node capabilities such as customizing the WSDL file, compressing XML documents and redesigning TCP protocol. Then, we survey the studies that have utilized the SWS technology in smart grid applications. These studies have shown that SWS provide energy management capabilities to the consumers and the utilities, and they are well suited for smart grid integrated smart home solutions. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Feature Papers)

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