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Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium
Heart Science Centre, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hill End Road, Harefield, UB9 6JH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2013; in revised form: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
Abstract: The proepicardium (PE) is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.
Keywords: chicken embryo; FGF8; SNAI1; PITX2; TBX18; WT1; inflow tract; sinus venosus
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MDPI and ACS Style
Schlueter, J.; Brand, T. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 126-140.
Schlueter J, Brand T. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2013; 1(2):126-140.
Schlueter, Jan; Brand, Thomas. 2013. "Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium." J. Dev. Biol. 1, no. 2: 126-140.