Next Article in Journal / Special Issue
Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair
Previous Article in Journal / Special Issue
Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology
J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1(2), 126-140; doi:10.3390/jdb1020126

Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium

Heart Science Centre, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, Hill End Road, Harefield, UB9 6JH, UK
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 30 May 2013 / Revised: 15 July 2013 / Accepted: 22 July 2013 / Published: 26 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [295 KB, uploaded 26 July 2013]   |  


The proepicardium (PE) is a cluster of cells that forms on the cardiac inflow tract and gives rise to the epicardium and connective tissue and largely contributes to the coronary vasculature. In many vertebrates, the PE undergoes left-right asymmetrical development. While PE cells and marker genes can be initially found on both sides, only the right-sided PE will fully develop and ultimately deliver cells to the heart. Several signalling inputs, like FGF and BMP signals, are involved in PE induction in the lateral plate mesoderm, as well as during inflow tract formation and, also, control asymmetric PE development. These signalling events will be put into the context of embryonic left-right asymmetry determination. Finally, it will be discussed whether PE development may serve as a readout for asymmetric inflow tract morphogenesis.
Keywords: chicken embryo; FGF8; SNAI1; PITX2; TBX18; WT1; inflow tract; sinus venosus chicken embryo; FGF8; SNAI1; PITX2; TBX18; WT1; inflow tract; sinus venosus
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
MDPI and ACS Style

Schlueter, J.; Brand, T. Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 126-140.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics


[Return to top]
J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert