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Left-Right Asymmetrical Development of the Proepicardium
J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1(2), 141-158; doi:10.3390/jdb1020141

Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair

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Received: 14 June 2013 / Revised: 8 August 2013 / Accepted: 9 August 2013 / Published: 26 August 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
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Abstract: The death of cardiac myocytes resulting from myocardial infarction is a major cause of heart failure worldwide. Effective therapies for regenerating lost cardiac myocytes are lacking. Recently, the epicardium has been implicated as a source of inflammatory cytokines, growth factors and progenitor cells that modulate the response to myocardial injury. During embryonic development, epicardially-derived cells have the potential to differentiate into multiple cardiac lineages, including fibroblasts, vascular smooth muscle and potentially other cell types. In the healthy adult heart, epicardial cells are thought to be generally quiescent. However, injury of the adult heart results in reactivation of a developmental gene program in the epicardium, which leads to increased epicardial cell proliferation and differentiation of epicardium-derived cells (EPDCs) into various cardiac lineages. Recent work suggests that epicardial reactivation after injury is accompanied by, and contributes to, a robust inflammatory response. In this review, we describe the current status of research related to epicardial biology in cardiac development and regeneration, highlighting important recent discoveries and ongoing controversies.
Keywords: epicardium; proepicardium; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); cardiac regeneration epicardium; proepicardium; epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT); cardiac regeneration
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Singh, M.K.; Epstein, J.A. Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 141-158.

AMA Style

Singh MK, Epstein JA. Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2013; 1(2):141-158.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Singh, Manvendra K.; Epstein, Jonathan A. 2013. "Epicardial Lineages and Cardiac Repair." J. Dev. Biol. 1, no. 2: 141-158.

J. Dev. Biol. EISSN 2221-3759 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert