J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1(2), 112-125; doi:10.3390/jdb1020112
Review

Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology

Received: 27 May 2013; in revised form: 12 July 2013 / Accepted: 15 July 2013 / Published: 24 July 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Epicardial Development and Cardiovascular Disease)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Zebrafish (Danio rerio) are an excellent vertebrate model for studying heart development, regeneration and cardiotoxicity. Zebrafish embryos exposed during the temporal window of epicardium development to the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AHR) agonist 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD) exhibit severe heart malformations. TCDD exposure prevents both proepicardial organ (PE) and epicardium development. Exposure later in development, after the epicardium has formed, does not produce cardiac toxicity. It is not until the adult zebrafish heart is stimulated to regenerate does TCDD again cause detrimental effects. TCDD exposure prior to ventricular resection prevents cardiac regeneration. It is likely that TCDD-induced inhibition of epicardium development and cardiac regeneration occur via a common mechanism. Here, we describe experiments that focus on the epicardium as a target and sensor of zebrafish heart toxicity.
Keywords: epicardium; proepicardium; TCDD; AHR; heart regeneration
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hofsteen, P.; Plavicki, J.; Peterson, R.E.; Heideman, W. Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology. J. Dev. Biol. 2013, 1, 112-125.

AMA Style

Hofsteen P, Plavicki J, Peterson RE, Heideman W. Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology. Journal of Developmental Biology. 2013; 1(2):112-125.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hofsteen, Peter; Plavicki, Jessica; Peterson, Richard E.; Heideman, Warren. 2013. "Epicardium Formation as a Sensor in Toxicology." J. Dev. Biol. 1, no. 2: 112-125.

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