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ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf., Volume 1, Issue 2 (September 2012), Pages 108-227

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Research

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Open AccessArticle Visualization of Lake Mead Surface Area Changes from 1972 to 2009
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 108-119; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020108
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 2 June 2012 / Accepted: 15 June 2012 / Published: 26 June 2012
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (760 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
For most of the last decade, the south-western portion of the United States has experienced a severe and enduring drought. This has caused serious concerns about water supply and management in the region. In this research, 30 orthorectified Landsat satellite images from [...] Read more.
For most of the last decade, the south-western portion of the United States has experienced a severe and enduring drought. This has caused serious concerns about water supply and management in the region. In this research, 30 orthorectified Landsat satellite images from the United States Geological Service (USGS) Earth Explorer archive were analyzed for the 1972 to 2009 period. The images encompassed Lake Mead (a major reservoir in this region) and were examined for changes in water surface area. Decadal lake area minimums/maximums were achieved in 1972/1979, 1981/1988, 1991/1998, and 2009/2000. The minimum lake area extent occurred in 2009 (356.4 km2), while the maximum occurred in 1998 (590.6 km2). Variable trends in water level and lake area were observed throughout the analysis period, however progressively lower values were observed since 2000. The Landsat derived lake areas show a very strong relationship with actual measured water levels at the Hoover Dam. Yearly water level variations at the dam vary minimally from the satellite derived estimates. A complete (yearly) record of satellite images may have helped to reduce the slight deviations in the time series. Full article
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Open AccessArticle A Unified Building Model for 3D Urban GIS
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 120-145; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020120
Received: 15 May 2012 / Revised: 15 June 2012 / Accepted: 2 July 2012 / Published: 17 July 2012
Cited by 10 | PDF Full-text (1066 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM) and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and CityGML are [...] Read more.
Several tasks in urban and architectural design are today undertaken in a geospatial context. Building Information Models (BIM) and geospatial technologies offer 3D data models that provide information about buildings and the surrounding environment. The Industry Foundation Classes (IFC) and CityGML are today the two most prominent semantic models for representation of BIM and geospatial models respectively. CityGML has emerged as a standard for modeling city models while IFC has been developed as a reference model for building objects and sites. Current CAD and geospatial software provide tools that allow the conversion of information from one format to the other. These tools are however fairly limited in their capabilities, often resulting in data and information losses in the transformations. This paper describes a new approach for data integration based on a unified building model (UBM) which encapsulates both the CityGML and IFC models, thus avoiding translations between the models and loss of information. To build the UBM, all classes and related concepts were initially collected from both models, overlapping concepts were merged, new objects were created to ensure the capturing of both indoor and outdoor objects, and finally, spatial relationships between the objects were redefined. Unified Modeling Language (UML) notations were used for representing its objects and relationships between them. There are two use-case scenarios, both set in a hospital: “evacuation” and “allocating spaces for patient wards” were developed to validate and test the proposed UBM data model. Based on these two scenarios, four validation queries were defined in order to validate the appropriateness of the proposed unified building model. It has been validated, through the case scenarios and four queries, that the UBM being developed is able to integrate CityGML data as well as IFC data in an apparently seamless way. Constraints and enrichment functions are used for populating empty database tables and fields. The motivation scenarios also show the needs and benefits of having an integrated approach to the modeling of indoor and outdoor spatial features. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Analyzing the Contributor Activity of a Volunteered Geographic Information Project — The Case of OpenStreetMap
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 146-165; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020146
Received: 13 June 2012 / Revised: 17 July 2012 / Accepted: 17 July 2012 / Published: 27 July 2012
Cited by 58 | PDF Full-text (1470 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The OpenStreetMap (OSM) project, founded in 2004, has gathered an exceptional amount of interest in recent years and counts as one of the most impressive sources of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) on the Internet. In total, more than half a million members [...] Read more.
The OpenStreetMap (OSM) project, founded in 2004, has gathered an exceptional amount of interest in recent years and counts as one of the most impressive sources of Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) on the Internet. In total, more than half a million members had registered for the project by the end of 2011. However, while this number of contributors seems impressive, questions remain about the individual contributions that have been made by the project members. This research article contains several studies regarding the contributions by the community of the project. The results show that only 38% (192,000) of the registered members carried out at least one edit in the OSM database and that only 5% (24,000) of all members actively contributed to the project in a more productive way. The majority of the members are located in Europe (72%) and each member has an activity area whose size may range from one soccer field up to more than 50 km2. In addition to several more analyses conducted for this article, predictions will be made about how this newly acquired knowledge can be used for future research. Full article
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Open AccessArticle Using Crowdsourced Geodata for Agent-Based Indoor Evacuation Simulations
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 186-208; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020186
Received: 4 June 2012 / Revised: 20 August 2012 / Accepted: 21 August 2012 / Published: 29 August 2012
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (550 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Crowdsourced geodata has been proven to be a rich and major data source for environmental simulations and analysis, as well as the visualization of spatial phenomena. With the increasing size and complexity of public buildings, such as universities or hotels, there is [...] Read more.
Crowdsourced geodata has been proven to be a rich and major data source for environmental simulations and analysis, as well as the visualization of spatial phenomena. With the increasing size and complexity of public buildings, such as universities or hotels, there is also an increasing demand for information about indoor spaces. Trying to stimulate this growing demand, both researchers and Volunteered Geographic Information (VGI) communities envision to extend established communities towards indoors. It has already been showcased that VGI from OpenStreetMap (OSM) can be utilized for different applications in Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) as well as for simple shortest path computations inside buildings. The here presented research now tries to utilize crowdsourced indoor geodata for more complex indoor routing scenarios of multiple users. Essentially, it will be investigated if, and to what extent, the available data can be utilized for performing indoor evacuation simulations with the simulation framework MATSim. That is, this paper investigates the suitability of crowdsourced indoor information from OSM (IndoorOSM) for evacuation simulations. Additionally, the applicability of MATSim for agent-based indoor evacuation simulations is conducted. The paper discusses the automatic generation simulation-related data, and provides experimental results for two different evacuation scenarios. Furthermore, limitations of the IndoorOSM data and the MATSim framework for indoor evacuation simulations are elaborated and discussed. Full article
Open AccessArticle Changes in Vegetation Cover in Reforested Areas in the State of São Paulo, Brazil and the Implication for Landslide Processes
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 209-227; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020209
Received: 27 July 2012 / Revised: 21 August 2012 / Accepted: 30 August 2012 / Published: 12 September 2012
PDF Full-text (1133 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In Brazil, plantations of exotic species such as Eucalyptus have expanded substantially in recent years, due in large part to the great demand for cellulose and wood. The combination of the steep slopes in some of these regions, such as the municipalities [...] Read more.
In Brazil, plantations of exotic species such as Eucalyptus have expanded substantially in recent years, due in large part to the great demand for cellulose and wood. The combination of the steep slopes in some of these regions, such as the municipalities located close to the Serra do Mar and Serra da Mantiqueira, and the soil exposure that occurs in some stages in the Eucalyptus cultivation cycle, can cause landslides. The use of a geographic information system (GIS) assists with the identification of areas that are susceptible to landslides, and one of the GIS tools used is the spatial inference technique. In this work, the landslide susceptibility of areas occupied by Eucalyptus plantations in different stages of development in municipalities in the state of São Paulo was examined. Eight thematic maps were used, and, the fuzzy gamma technique was used for data integration and the generation of susceptibility maps, in which scenarios were created with different gamma values for the dry and rainy seasons. The results for areas planted with Eucalyptus were compared with those obtained for other land uses and covers. In the moderate and high susceptibility classes, the pasture is the land use type that presented the greatest susceptibility, followed by new Eucalyptus plantations and urban areas. Full article
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Review

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Open AccessReview An Analysis of Geospatial Technologies for Risk and Natural Disaster Management
ISPRS Int. J. Geo-Inf. 2012, 1(2), 166-185; doi:10.3390/ijgi1020166
Received: 15 June 2012 / Revised: 18 July 2012 / Accepted: 26 July 2012 / Published: 7 August 2012
Cited by 9 | PDF Full-text (393 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
This paper discusses the use of spatial data for risk and natural disaster management. The importance of remote-sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is stressed by comparing studies of the use of these technologies for [...] Read more.
This paper discusses the use of spatial data for risk and natural disaster management. The importance of remote-sensing (RS), Geographic Information System (GIS) and Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) data is stressed by comparing studies of the use of these technologies for natural disaster management. Spatial data sharing is discussed in the context of the establishment of Spatial Data Infrastructures (SDIs) for natural disasters. Some examples of SDI application in disaster management are analyzed, and the need for participation from organizations and governments to facilitate the exchange of information and to improve preventive and emergency plans is reinforced. Additionally, the potential involvement of citizens in the risk and disaster management process by providing voluntary data collected from volunteered geographic information (VGI) applications is explored. A model relating all of the spatial data-sharing aspects discussed in the article was suggested to elucidate the importance of the issues raised. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Space-Based Technologies for Disaster Risk Management)

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