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Metabolites 2017, 7(2), 15; doi:10.3390/metabo7020015

Analysis of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) to Daphnia magna Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomics

Environmental NMR Centre and Department of Physical and Environmental Sciences, University of Toronto Scarborough, 1265 Military Trail, Toronto, ON M1C1A4, Canada
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Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Manuel Liebeke
Received: 24 February 2017 / Revised: 5 April 2017 / Accepted: 12 April 2017 / Published: 14 April 2017
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Environmental Metabolomics)
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Abstract

1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomics was used to characterize the response of Daphnia magna after sub-lethal exposure to perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), a commonly found environmental pollutant in freshwater ecosystems. Principal component analysis (PCA) scores plots showed significant separation in the exposed samples relative to the controls. Partial least squares (PLS) regression analysis revealed a strong linear correlation between the overall metabolic response and PFOS exposure concentration. More detailed analysis showed that the toxic mode of action is metabolite-specific with some metabolites exhibiting a non-monotonic response with higher PFOS exposure concentrations. Our study indicates that PFOS exposure disrupts various energy metabolism pathways and also enhances protein degradation. Overall, we identified several metabolites that are sensitive to PFOS exposure and may be used as bioindicators of D. magna health. In addition, this study also highlights the important utility of environmental metabolomic methods when attempting to elucidate acute and sub-lethal pollutant stressors on keystone organisms such as D. magna. View Full-Text
Keywords: environmental metabolomics; environmental stressors; bioindicators; PFOS mode of action; sub-lethal toxicity; aquatic ecosystem health environmental metabolomics; environmental stressors; bioindicators; PFOS mode of action; sub-lethal toxicity; aquatic ecosystem health
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MDPI and ACS Style

Kariuki, M.N.; Nagato, E.G.; Lankadurai, B.P.; Simpson, A.J.; Simpson, M.J. Analysis of Sub-Lethal Toxicity of Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) to Daphnia magna Using 1H Nuclear Magnetic Resonance-Based Metabolomics. Metabolites 2017, 7, 15.

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