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Metabolites 2014, 4(3), 599-611; doi:10.3390/metabo4030599
Article

Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency

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Received: 24 April 2014; in revised form: 29 June 2014 / Accepted: 3 July 2014 / Published: 16 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Biotechnology)
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Abstract: Root exudates improve the nutrient acquisition of plants and affect rhizosphere microbial communities. The plant nutrient status affects the composition of root exudates. The purpose of this study was to examine common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) root exudates under phosphorus (P) deficiency using a metabolite profiling technique. Common bean plants were grown in a culture solution at P concentrations of 0 (P0), 1 (P1) and 8 (P8) mg P Lāˆ’1 for 1, 10 and 20 days after transplanting (DAT). Root exudates were collected, and their metabolites were determined by capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF MS). The shoot P concentration and dry weight of common bean plants grown at P0 were lower than those grown at P8. One hundred and fifty-nine, 203 and 212 metabolites were identified in the root exudates, and 16% (26/159), 13% (26/203) and 9% (20/212) of metabolites showed a P0/P8 ratio higher than 2.0 at 1, 10 and 20 DAT, respectively. The relative peak areas of several metabolites, including organic acids and amino acids, in root exudates were higher at P0 than at P8. These results suggest that more than 10% of primary and secondary metabolites are induced to exude from roots of common bean by P deficiency.
Keywords: Phaseolus vulgaris; phosphorus deficiency; rhizosphere; root exudates Phaseolus vulgaris; phosphorus deficiency; rhizosphere; root exudates
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Tawaraya, K.; Horie, R.; Saito, S.; Wagatsuma, T.; Saito, K.; Oikawa, A. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency. Metabolites 2014, 4, 599-611.

AMA Style

Tawaraya K, Horie R, Saito S, Wagatsuma T, Saito K, Oikawa A. Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency. Metabolites. 2014; 4(3):599-611.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Tawaraya, Keitaro; Horie, Ryota; Saito, Saki; Wagatsuma, Tadao; Saito, Kazuki; Oikawa, Akira. 2014. "Metabolite Profiling of Root Exudates of Common Bean under Phosphorus Deficiency." Metabolites 4, no. 3: 599-611.


Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert