Metabolites 2014, 4(3), 580-598; doi:10.3390/metabo4030580
Article

Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast

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Received: 22 April 2014; in revised form: 12 June 2014 / Accepted: 24 June 2014 / Published: 8 July 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Metabolomics and Biotechnology)
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.
Abstract: Rtg1 and Rtg3 are two basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors found in yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae that are involved in the regulation of the mitochondrial retrograde (RTG) pathway. Under RTG response, anaplerotic synthesis of citrate is activated, consequently maintaining the supply of important precursors necessary for amino acid and nucleotide synthesis. Although the roles of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in TCA and glyoxylate cycles have been extensively reported, the investigation of other metabolic pathways has been lacking. Characteristic dimer formation in bHLH proteins, which allows for combinatorial gene expression, and the link between RTG and other regulatory pathways suggest more complex metabolic signaling involved in Rtg1/Rtg3 regulation. In this study, using a metabolomics approach, we examined metabolic alteration following RTG1 and RTG3 deletion. We found that apart from TCA and glyoxylate cycles, which have been previously reported, polyamine biosynthesis and other amino acid metabolism were significantly altered in RTG-deficient strains. We revealed that metabolic alterations occurred at various metabolic sites and that these changes relate to different growth phases, but the difference can be detected even at the mid-exponential phase, when mitochondrial function is repressed. Moreover, the effect of metabolic rearrangements can be seen through the chronological lifespan (CLS) measurement, where we confirmed the role of the RTG pathway in extending the yeast lifespan. Through a comprehensive metabolic profiling, we were able to explore metabolic phenotypes previously unidentified by other means and illustrate the possible correlations of Rtg1 and Rtg3 in different pathways.
Keywords: metabolomics; retrograde (RTG) pathway; bHLH proteins; yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae
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MDPI and ACS Style

Hashim, Z.; Mukai, Y.; Bamba, T.; Fukusaki, E. Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast. Metabolites 2014, 4, 580-598.

AMA Style

Hashim Z, Mukai Y, Bamba T, Fukusaki E. Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast. Metabolites. 2014; 4(3):580-598.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Hashim, Zanariah; Mukai, Yukio; Bamba, Takeshi; Fukusaki, Eiichiro. 2014. "Metabolic Profiling of Retrograde Pathway Transcription Factors Rtg1 and Rtg3 Knockout Yeast." Metabolites 4, no. 3: 580-598.

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