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Metabolites 2014, 4(3), 612-628; doi:10.3390/metabo4030612

Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme

1
Department of Biology, Brooklyn College of the City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue 200NE, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
2
The Graduate Center of the City University of New York, 2900 Bedford Avenue 200NE, Brooklyn, NY 11210, USA
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 June 2014 / Revised: 25 July 2014 / Accepted: 28 July 2014 / Published: 4 August 2014
(This article belongs to the collection Metabolism in Phototrophic Prokaryotes and Algae)
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Abstract

The exact mechanisms underlying the distribution of fixed carbon within photoautotrophic cells, also referred to as carbon partitioning, and the subcellular localization of many enzymes involved in carbon metabolism are still unknown. In contrast to the majority of investigated green algae, higher plants have multiple isoforms of the glycolytic enolase enzyme, which are differentially regulated in higher plants. Here we report on the number of gene copies coding for the enolase in several genomes of species spanning the major classes of green algae. Our genomic analysis of several green algae revealed the presence of only one gene coding for a glycolytic enolase [EC 4.2.1.11]. Our predicted cytosolic localization would require export of organic carbon from the plastid to provide substrate for the enolase and subsequent re-import of organic carbon back into the plastids. Further, our comparative sequence study of the enolase and its 3D-structure prediction may suggest that the N-terminal extension found in green algal enolases could be involved in regulation of the enolase activity. In summary, we propose that the enolase represents one of the crucial regulatory bottlenecks in carbon partitioning in green algae.
Keywords: green algae; metabolism; carbon partitioning; enolase green algae; metabolism; carbon partitioning; enolase
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Polle, J.E.W.; Neofotis, P.; Huang, A.; Chang, W.; Sury, K.; Wiech, E.M. Carbon Partitioning in Green Algae (Chlorophyta) and the Enolase Enzyme. Metabolites 2014, 4, 612-628.

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