Next Article in Journal
Effects of Inorganic Carbon Limitation on the Metabolome of the Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 Mutant Defective in glnB Encoding the Central Regulator PII of Cyanobacterial C/N Acclimation
Previous Article in Journal
Rationales and Approaches for Studying Metabolism in Eukaryotic Microalgae
Previous Article in Special Issue
1H NMR Analysis of Cerebrospinal Fluid from Alzheimer’s Disease Patients: An Example of a Possible Misinterpretation Due to Non-Adjustment of pH
Metabolites 2014, 4(2), 218-231; doi:10.3390/metabo4020218
Article

Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306

1,†
,
1,2,†
,
1
,
1
 and
1,*
1 Brazilian Biosciences National Laboratory, Rua Giuseppe Máximo Scolfaro, 10.000-Polo II de Alta Tecnologia, Caixa Postal 6192, CEP 13083-970, Campinas/SP, Brazil 2 Molecular Biology Laboratory, Boldrini Children Hospital, Rua Dr. Gabriel Porto, 1270 Cidade Universitária, CEP 13083-210, Campinas/SP, Brazil These authors contributed equally to this work.
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 31 October 2013 / Revised: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sample Preparation for Metabolite Analysis)
View Full-Text   |   Download PDF [1003 KB, 24 April 2014; original version 22 April 2014]   |  

Abstract

Xanthomonas is a genus of phytopathogenic bacteria, which produces a slimy, polysaccharide matrix known as xanthan gum, which involves, protects and helps the bacteria during host colonization. Although broadly used as a stabilizer and thickener in the cosmetic and food industries, xanthan gum can be a troubling artifact in molecular investigations due to its rheological properties. In particular, a cross-reaction between reference compounds and the xanthan gum could compromise metabolic quantification by NMR spectroscopy. Aiming at an efficient gum extraction protocol, for a 1H-NMR-based metabolic profiling study of Xanthomonas, we tested four different interventions on the broadly used methanol-chloroform extraction protocol for the intracellular metabolic contents observation. Lower limits for bacterial pellet volumes for extraction were also probed, and a strategy is illustrated with an initial analysis of X. citri’s metabolism by 1H-NMR spectroscopy.
Keywords: Xanthomonas; xanthan gum removal; 1H-NMR; cell extraction protocol; metabolomics of bacteria; metabolomics of microorganisms Xanthomonas; xanthan gum removal; 1H-NMR; cell extraction protocol; metabolomics of bacteria; metabolomics of microorganisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

Supplementary material

SciFeed

Share & Cite This Article

Further Mendeley | CiteULike
Export to BibTeX |
EndNote |
RIS
MDPI and ACS Style

Pegos, V.R.; Canevarolo, R.R.; Sampaio, A.P.; Balan, A.; Zeri, A.C.M. Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306. Metabolites 2014, 4, 218-231.

View more citation formats

Related Articles

Article Metrics

For more information on the journal, click here

Comments

[Return to top]
Metabolites EISSN 2218-1989 Published by MDPI AG, Basel, Switzerland RSS E-Mail Table of Contents Alert