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Metabolites 2014, 4(2), 218-231; doi:10.3390/metabo4020218
Article

Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306

1,†
, 1,2,†
, 1
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 and 1,*
Received: 31 October 2013; in revised form: 5 March 2014 / Accepted: 11 April 2014 / Published: 22 April 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sample Preparation for Metabolite Analysis)
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Abstract: Xanthomonas is a genus of phytopathogenic bacteria, which produces a slimy, polysaccharide matrix known as xanthan gum, which involves, protects and helps the bacteria during host colonization. Although broadly used as a stabilizer and thickener in the cosmetic and food industries, xanthan gum can be a troubling artifact in molecular investigations due to its rheological properties. In particular, a cross-reaction between reference compounds and the xanthan gum could compromise metabolic quantification by NMR spectroscopy. Aiming at an efficient gum extraction protocol, for a 1H-NMR-based metabolic profiling study of Xanthomonas, we tested four different interventions on the broadly used methanol-chloroform extraction protocol for the intracellular metabolic contents observation. Lower limits for bacterial pellet volumes for extraction were also probed, and a strategy is illustrated with an initial analysis of X. citri’s metabolism by 1H-NMR spectroscopy.
Keywords: Xanthomonas; xanthan gum removal; 1H-NMR; cell extraction protocol; metabolomics of bacteria; metabolomics of microorganisms Xanthomonas; xanthan gum removal; 1H-NMR; cell extraction protocol; metabolomics of bacteria; metabolomics of microorganisms
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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MDPI and ACS Style

Pegos, V.R.; Canevarolo, R.R.; Sampaio, A.P.; Balan, A.; Zeri, A.C.M. Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306. Metabolites 2014, 4, 218-231.

AMA Style

Pegos VR, Canevarolo RR, Sampaio AP, Balan A, Zeri ACM. Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306. Metabolites. 2014; 4(2):218-231.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Pegos, Vanessa R.; Canevarolo, Rafael R.; Sampaio, Aline P.; Balan, Andrea; Zeri, Ana C.M. 2014. "Xanthan Gum Removal for 1H-NMR Analysis of the Intracellular Metabolome of the Bacteria Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. citri 306." Metabolites 4, no. 2: 218-231.


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