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Metabolites 2014, 4(1), 71-97; doi:10.3390/metabo4010071

Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) and Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as Sample Preparation Procedures for the Metabolomic Profiling of Urine

1
CQM—Centro de Química da Madeira, Universidade da Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, Funchal 9000-390, Portugal
2
Centro de Ciências Exatas e da Engenharia da Universidade da Madeira, Campus Universitário da Penteada, Funchal 9000-390, Portugal
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 December 2013 / Revised: 14 January 2014 / Accepted: 21 January 2014 / Published: 27 January 2014
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Sample Preparation for Metabolite Analysis)
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Abstract

For a long time, sample preparation was unrecognized as a critical issue in the analytical methodology, thus limiting the performance that could be achieved. However, the improvement of microextraction techniques, particularly microextraction by packed sorbent (MEPS) and solid-phase microextraction (SPME), completely modified this scenario by introducing unprecedented control over this process. Urine is a biological fluid that is very interesting for metabolomics studies, allowing human health and disease characterization in a minimally invasive form. In this manuscript, we will critically review the most relevant and promising works in this field, highlighting how the metabolomic profiling of urine can be an extremely valuable tool for the early diagnosis of highly prevalent diseases, such as cardiovascular, oncologic and neurodegenerative ones.
Keywords: urine; metabolomics; microextraction by packed sorbent; solid-phase microextraction urine; metabolomics; microextraction by packed sorbent; solid-phase microextraction
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 3.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Silva, C.; Cavaco, C.; Perestrelo, R.; Pereira, J.; Câmara, J.S. Microextraction by Packed Sorbent (MEPS) and Solid-Phase Microextraction (SPME) as Sample Preparation Procedures for the Metabolomic Profiling of Urine. Metabolites 2014, 4, 71-97.

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