Metabolites 2014, 4(1), 36-52; doi:10.3390/metabo4010036
Article

Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems

1 Research Planning and Management Group, Kajima Technical Research Institute, Kajima Corporation, 2-19-1 Tobitakyu, Chofu, Tokyo 182-0036, Japan 2 Graduate School of Medical Life Science, Yokohama City University, 1-7-29 Suehirocho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan 3 RIKEN Center for Sustainable Resource Science, 1-7-22 Suehirocho, Tsurumi-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 230-0045, Japan 4 Graduate School of Life and Environmental Sciences, Osaka Prefecture University, Osaka 599-8531, Japan 5 Graduate School of Bioagricultural Sciences, Nagoya University, 1 Furo-cho, Chikusa-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 464-0810, Japan 6 RIKEN Biomass Engineering Program, 2-1 Hirosawa, Wako 351-0198, Japan
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 13 September 2013; in revised form: 18 December 2013 / Accepted: 20 December 2013 / Published: 31 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Microbial Metabolomics)
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Abstract: Anaerobic digestion of highly polymerized biomass by microbial communities present in diverse microbial ecosystems is an indispensable metabolic process for biogeochemical cycling in nature and for industrial activities required to maintain a sustainable society. Therefore, the evaluation of the complicated microbial metabolomics presents a significant challenge. We here describe a comprehensive strategy for characterizing the degradation of highly crystallized bacterial cellulose (BC) that is accompanied by metabolite production for identifying the responsible biocatalysts, including microorganisms and their metabolic functions. To this end, we employed two-dimensional solid- and one-dimensional solution-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) profiling combined with a metagenomic approach using stable isotope labeling. The key components of biocatalytic reactions determined using a metagenomic approach were correlated with cellulose degradation and metabolic products. The results indicate that BC degradation was mediated by cellulases that contain carbohydrate-binding modules and that belong to structural type A. The degradation reactions induced the metabolic dynamics of the microbial community and produced organic compounds, such as acetic acid and propionic acid, mainly metabolized by clostridial species. This combinatorial, functional and structural metagenomic approach is useful for the comprehensive characterization of biomass degradation, metabolic dynamics and their key components in diverse ecosystems.
Keywords: nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR)-based metabolomic approach; heteronuclear correlation (HETCOR); metagenomic analysis; anaerobic ecosystem; carbohydrate-binding module (CBM)

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamazawa, A.; Iikura, T.; Morioka, Y.; Shino, A.; Ogata, Y.; Date, Y.; Kikuchi, J. Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems. Metabolites 2014, 4, 36-52.

AMA Style

Yamazawa A, Iikura T, Morioka Y, Shino A, Ogata Y, Date Y, Kikuchi J. Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems. Metabolites. 2014; 4(1):36-52.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Yamazawa, Akira; Iikura, Tomohiro; Morioka, Yusuke; Shino, Amiu; Ogata, Yoshiyuki; Date, Yasuhiro; Kikuchi, Jun. 2014. "Cellulose Digestion and Metabolism Induced Biocatalytic Transitions in Anaerobic Microbial Ecosystems." Metabolites 4, no. 1: 36-52.

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