Metabolites 2014, 4(1), 1-35; doi:10.3390/metabo4010001
Review

Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses

1 Kyushu Institute of Technology, Fukuoka, Iizuka 820-8502, Japan 2 Institute of Advanced Bioscience, Keio University, Yamagata, Tsuruoka 997-0017, Japan 
Received: 9 September 2013; in revised form: 18 November 2013 / Accepted: 6 December 2013 / Published: 30 December 2013
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Response to Environment and Stress Metabolism)
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Abstract: An overview was made to understand the regulation system of a bacterial cell such as Escherichia coli in response to nutrient limitation such as carbon, nitrogen, phosphate, sulfur, ion sources, and environmental stresses such as oxidative stress, acid shock, heat shock, and solvent stresses. It is quite important to understand how the cell detects environmental signals, integrate such information, and how the cell system is regulated. As for catabolite regulation, F1,6B P (FDP), PEP, and PYR play important roles in enzyme level regulation together with transcriptional regulation by such transcription factors as Cra, Fis, CsrA, and cAMP-Crp. αKG plays an important role in the coordinated control between carbon (C)- and nitrogen (N)-limitations, where αKG inhibits enzyme I (EI) of phosphotransferase system (PTS), thus regulating the glucose uptake rate in accordance with N level. As such, multiple regulation systems are co-ordinated for the cell synthesis and energy generation against nutrient limitations and environmental stresses. As for oxidative stress, the TCA cycle both generates and scavenges the reactive oxygen species (ROSs), where NADPH produced at ICDH and the oxidative pentose phosphate pathways play an important role in coping with oxidative stress. Solvent resistant mechanism was also considered for the stresses caused by biofuels and biochemicals production in the cell.
Keywords: metabolic regulation; nutrient limitation; environmental stress; intracellular metabolite; global regulators; enzyme level regulation; transcriptional regulation

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MDPI and ACS Style

Shimizu, K. Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses. Metabolites 2014, 4, 1-35.

AMA Style

Shimizu K. Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses. Metabolites. 2014; 4(1):1-35.

Chicago/Turabian Style

Shimizu, Kazuyuki. 2014. "Regulation Systems of Bacteria such as Escherichia coli in Response to Nutrient Limitation and Environmental Stresses." Metabolites 4, no. 1: 1-35.

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