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Diseases 2016, 4(3), 26; doi:10.3390/diseases4030026

Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus–Host Interactions

School of Biological Sciences, Nanyang Technological University, 60 Nanyang Drive, Singapore 637551, Singapore
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Academic Editor: Maurizio Battino
Received: 8 June 2016 / Revised: 18 July 2016 / Accepted: 18 July 2016 / Published: 25 July 2016
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Abstract

Human coronaviruses (HCoVs) are known respiratory pathogens associated with a range of respiratory outcomes. In the past 14 years, the onset of severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Middle East respiratory syndrome coronavirus (MERS-CoV) have thrust HCoVs into spotlight of the research community due to their high pathogenicity in humans. The study of HCoV-host interactions has contributed extensively to our understanding of HCoV pathogenesis. In this review, we discuss some of the recent findings of host cell factors that might be exploited by HCoVs to facilitate their own replication cycle. We also discuss various cellular processes, such as apoptosis, innate immunity, ER stress response, mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway that may be modulated by HCoVs. View Full-Text
Keywords: human coronavirus; virus–host interactions; apoptosis; innate immunity; ER stress; MAPK; NF-κB human coronavirus; virus–host interactions; apoptosis; innate immunity; ER stress; MAPK; NF-κB
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This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Lim, Y.X.; Ng, Y.L.; Tam, J.P.; Liu, D.X. Human Coronaviruses: A Review of Virus–Host Interactions. Diseases 2016, 4, 26.

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