Abstract: The concept of bandgap science of organic semiconductor films for use in photovoltaic cells, namely, high-purification, pn-control by doping, and design of the built-in potential based on precisely-evaluated doping parameters, is summarized. The principle characteristics of organic solar cells, namely, the exciton, donor (D)/acceptor (A) sensitization, and p-i-n cells containing co-deposited and D/A molecular blended i-interlayers, are explained. ‘Seven-nines’ (7N) purification, together with phase-separation/cystallization induced by co-evaporant 3rd molecules allowed us to fabricate 5.3% efficient cells based on 1 µm-thick fullerene:phthalocyanine (C60:H2Pc) co-deposited films. pn-control techniques enabled by impurity doping for both single and co-deposited films were established. The carrier concentrations created by doping were determined by the Kelvin band mapping technique. The relatively high ionization efficiency of 10% for doped organic semiconductors can be explained by the formation of charge transfer (CT)-complexes between the dopants and the organic semiconductor molecules. A series of fundamental junctions, such as Schottky junctions, pn-homojunctions, p+, n+-organic/metal ohmic junctions, and n+-organic/ p+-organic ohmic homojunctions, were fabricated in both single and co-deposited organic semiconductor films by impurity doping alone. A tandem cell showing 2.4% efficiency was fabricated in which the built-in electric field was designed by manipulating the doping.
Keywords: organic solar cell; doping; bandgap science; seven-nines purification; phase-separation; pn-control; co-deposited film; Kelvin band mapping; carrier concentration; ionization efficiency; built-in potential design; pn-homojunction; metal/organic ohmic junction; organic/organic ohmic homojunction; tandem cell
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Hiramoto, M.; Kubo, M.; Shinmura, Y.; Ishiyama, N.; Kaji, T.; Sakai, K.; Ohno, T.; Izaki, M. Bandgap Science for Organic Solar Cells. Electronics 2014, 3, 351-380.
Hiramoto M, Kubo M, Shinmura Y, Ishiyama N, Kaji T, Sakai K, Ohno T, Izaki M. Bandgap Science for Organic Solar Cells. Electronics. 2014; 3(2):351-380.
Hiramoto, Masahiro; Kubo, Masayuki; Shinmura, Yusuke; Ishiyama, Norihiro; Kaji, Toshihiko; Sakai, Kazuya; Ohno, Toshinobu; Izaki, Masanobu. 2014. "Bandgap Science for Organic Solar Cells." Electronics 3, no. 2: 351-380.