Special Issue "Organic Semiconductors"

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A special issue of Electronics (ISSN 2079-9292).

Deadline for manuscript submissions: closed (15 January 2014)

Special Issue Editor

Guest Editor
Prof. Dr. Mohan Jacob

Electronic Materials Research Lab, College of Science and Engineering, Technology and Engineering, James Cook University, Townsville, QLD 4811, Australia
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Fax: +61 (0)7 4781 6788
Interests: polymer thin films; plasma polymerisation; biocompatibility; biotechnology; biofouling; electronic materials; organic semiconductors; microwave characterisation of superconductors and dielectric materials

Special Issue Information

Dear Colleagues,

Organic Semiconductors: Past, Present and Future

Over the last few years Organic Semiconducting industry showed significant growth in many areas dominated by conventional electronics. The foremost advantage of organic materials is that they are cheap, lightweight and flexible. In addition, the fabrication of organic materials from a defined molecular precursor using inkjet−printing technology is simple, bypassing the need for advanced semiconductor processing techniques. Organic thin films have already found confirmed and reliable applications in flexible displays, solar cells and biomedical applications, including implantable devices. Low cost materials, compatible with current organic electronic fabrication techniques and which improve device performance are in strong demand.

This special issue of Organic Semiconductors will cover Materials, Fabrication Techniques, Characterization, Devices and market adoption of Organic Semiconductors. This special issue will publish both original research papers and review papers in the field of research.

Dr. Mohan Jacob
Guest Editor

Submission

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Keywords

  • organic field effect transistors
  • organic light emitting diodes
  • organic solar cells
  • implantable devices
  • biomaterials
  • flexible electronics
  • charge transport
  • charge transporting materials

Published Papers (14 papers)

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Editorial

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Open AccessEditorial Organic Semiconductors: Past, Present and Future
Electronics 2014, 3(4), 594-597; doi:10.3390/electronics3040594
Received: 16 September 2014 / Revised: 17 September 2014 / Accepted: 17 September 2014 / Published: 30 September 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (164 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic electronics, such as displays, photovoltaics and electronics circuits and components, offer several advantages over the conventional inorganic-based electronics because they are inexpensive, flexible, unbreakable, optically transparent, lightweight and have low power consumption. In particular, organic displays exhibit high brightness, fast response time,
[...] Read more.
Organic electronics, such as displays, photovoltaics and electronics circuits and components, offer several advantages over the conventional inorganic-based electronics because they are inexpensive, flexible, unbreakable, optically transparent, lightweight and have low power consumption. In particular, organic displays exhibit high brightness, fast response time, wide viewing angle, and low operating voltage. [...] Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available

Research

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Open AccessArticle Strong Coupling between Plasmons and Organic Semiconductors
Electronics 2014, 3(2), 303-313; doi:10.3390/electronics3020303
Received: 17 February 2014 / Revised: 10 April 2014 / Accepted: 16 April 2014 / Published: 6 May 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (947 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and
[...] Read more.
In this paper we describe the properties of organic material in strong coupling with plasmon, mainly based on our work in this field of research. The strong coupling modifies the optical transitions of the structure, and occurs when the interaction between molecules and plasmon prevails on the damping of the system. We describe the dispersion relation of different plasmonic systems, delocalized and localized plasmon, coupled to aggregated dyes and the typical properties of these systems in strong coupling. The modification of the dye emission is also studied. In the second part, the effect of the microscopic structure of the organics, which can be seen as a disordered film, is described. As the different molecules couple to the same plasmon mode, an extended coherent state on several microns is observed. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Optical and Surface Characterization of Radio Frequency Plasma Polymerized 1-Isopropyl-4-Methyl-1,4-Cyclohexadiene Thin Films
Electronics 2014, 3(2), 266-281; doi:10.3390/electronics3020266
Received: 21 February 2014 / Accepted: 14 April 2014 / Published: 23 April 2014
Cited by 7 | PDF Full-text (986 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Low pressure radio frequency plasma-assisted deposition of 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene thin films was investigated for different polymerization conditions. Transparent, environmentally stable and flexible, these organic films are promising candidates for organic photovoltaics (OPV) and flexible electronics applications, where they can be used as encapsulating coatings
[...] Read more.
Low pressure radio frequency plasma-assisted deposition of 1-isopropyl-4-methyl-1,4-cyclohexadiene thin films was investigated for different polymerization conditions. Transparent, environmentally stable and flexible, these organic films are promising candidates for organic photovoltaics (OPV) and flexible electronics applications, where they can be used as encapsulating coatings and insulating interlayers. The effect of deposition RF power on optical properties of the films was limited, with all films being optically transparent, with refractive indices in a range of 1.57–1.58 at 500 nm. The optical band gap (Eg) of ~3 eV fell into the insulating Eg region, decreasing for films fabricated at higher RF power. Independent of deposition conditions, the surfaces were smooth and defect-free, with uniformly distributed morphological features and average roughness between 0.30 nm (at 10 W) and 0.21 nm (at 75 W). Films fabricated at higher deposition power displayed enhanced resistance to delamination and wear, and improved hardness, from 0.40 GPa for 10 W to 0.58 GPa for 75 W at a load of 700 μN. From an application perspective, it is therefore possible to tune the mechanical and morphological properties of these films without compromising their optical transparency or insulating property. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Improvement in the Lifetime of Planar Organic Photovoltaic Cells through the Introduction of MoO3 into Their Cathode Buffer Layers
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 122-131; doi:10.3390/electronics3010122
Received: 11 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (255 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Recently, MoO3, which is typically used as an anode buffer layer in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs), has also been used as a cathode buffer layer (CBL). Here, we check its efficiency as a CBL using a planar heterojunction based on the
[...] Read more.
Recently, MoO3, which is typically used as an anode buffer layer in organic photovoltaic cells (OPVCs), has also been used as a cathode buffer layer (CBL). Here, we check its efficiency as a CBL using a planar heterojunction based on the CuPc/C60 couple. The CBL is a bi-layer tris-(8-hydroxyquinoline) aluminum (Alq3)/MoO3. We show that the OPVC with MoO3 in its CBL almost immediately exhibits lower efficiency than those using Alq3 alone. Nevertheless, the OPVCs increase their efficiency during the first five to six days of air exposure. We explain this evolution of the efficiency of the OPVCs over time through the variation in the MoO3 work function due to air contamination. By comparison to a classical OPVC using a CBL containing only Alq3, if it is found that the initial efficiency of the latter is higher, this result is no longer the same after one week of exposure to ambient air. Indeed, this result is due to the fact that the lifetime of the cells is significantly increased by the presence of MoO3 in the CBL. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
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Open AccessArticle Effects of Germanium Tetrabromide Addition to Zinc Tetraphenyl Porphyrin / Fullerene Bulk Heterojunction Solar Cells
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 112-121; doi:10.3390/electronics3010112
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 1 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 4 March 2014
Cited by 3 | PDF Full-text (747 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The effects of germanium tetrabromide addition to tetraphenyl porphyrin zinc (Zn-TPP)/fullerene (C60) bulk heterojunction solar cells were characterized. The light-induced charge separation and charge transfer were investigated by current density and optical absorption. Addition of germanium tetrabromide inserted into active layer
[...] Read more.
The effects of germanium tetrabromide addition to tetraphenyl porphyrin zinc (Zn-TPP)/fullerene (C60) bulk heterojunction solar cells were characterized. The light-induced charge separation and charge transfer were investigated by current density and optical absorption. Addition of germanium tetrabromide inserted into active layer of Zn-TPP/C60 as bulk heterojunction had a positive effect on the photovoltaic and optical properties. The photovoltaic mechanism of the solar cells was discussed by experimental results. The photovoltaic performance was due to light-induced exciton promoted by insert of GeBr4 and charge transfer from HOMO of Zn-TPP to LUMO of C60 in the active layer. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessArticle Morphology, Electrical Performance and Potentiometry of PDIF-CN2 Thin-Film Transistors on HMDS-Treated and Bare Silicon Dioxide
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 76-86; doi:10.3390/electronics3010076
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 14 February 2014 / Accepted: 17 February 2014 / Published: 24 February 2014
Cited by 5 | PDF Full-text (456 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In this work, the electrical response of n-type organic field-effect transistors, achieved by evaporating PDIF-CN2 films on both bare and Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) treated SiO2 substrates, was investigated by standard electrical characterization and potentiometry. Morphological and charge transport characterizations demonstrated that the
[...] Read more.
In this work, the electrical response of n-type organic field-effect transistors, achieved by evaporating PDIF-CN2 films on both bare and Hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) treated SiO2 substrates, was investigated by standard electrical characterization and potentiometry. Morphological and charge transport characterizations demonstrated that the hydrophobic degree of the substrate surface has a huge impact on the final response of the devices. The PDIF-CN2 transistors on HMDS-treated substrates show a maximum mobility of 0.7 cm2/Volt·s, three orders of magnitude greater than in the case of the device without surface functionalization. The scanning Kelvin probe microscopy technique was used to perform surface potentiometry to image the local surface potential inside the channel during the transistor operation and has allowed us to identify the film morphological disorder as the primary factor that could compromise the effectiveness of the charge injection process from gold contacts to PDIF-CN2 films. For optimized devices on HMDS-treated substrates, SKPM was also used to analyze, over time, the evolution of the potential profile when negative VGS voltages were applied. The findings of these measurements are discussed taking into account the role of VGS-induced proton migration towards SiO2 bulk, in the operational stability of the device. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available

Review

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Open AccessReview Bio-Organic Electronics—Overview and Prospects for the Future
Electronics 2014, 3(3), 444-461; doi:10.3390/electronics3030444
Received: 8 March 2014 / Revised: 10 June 2014 / Accepted: 7 July 2014 / Published: 18 July 2014
Cited by 12 | PDF Full-text (6495 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
In recent years, both biodegradable and bio-based electronics have attracted increasing interest, but are also controversially discussed at the same time. Yet, it is not clear whether they will contribute to science and technology or whether they will disappear without major impact. The
[...] Read more.
In recent years, both biodegradable and bio-based electronics have attracted increasing interest, but are also controversially discussed at the same time. Yet, it is not clear whether they will contribute to science and technology or whether they will disappear without major impact. The present review will address several aspects while showing the potential opportunities of bio-organic electronics. An overview about the complex terminology of this emerging field is given and test methods are presented which are used to evaluate the biodegradable properties. It will be shown that the majority of components of organic electronics can be substituted by biodegradable or bio-based materials. Moreover, application scenarios are presented where bio-organic materials have advantages compared to conventional ones. A variety of publications are highlighted which encompass typical organic devices like organic light emitting diodes, organic solar cells and organic thin film transistors as well as applications in the field of medicine or agriculture. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessReview Bandgap Science for Organic Solar Cells
Electronics 2014, 3(2), 351-380; doi:10.3390/electronics3020351
Received: 18 February 2014 / Revised: 28 April 2014 / Accepted: 26 May 2014 / Published: 11 June 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (966 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The concept of bandgap science of organic semiconductor films for use in photovoltaic cells, namely, high-purification, pn-control by doping, and design of the built-in potential based on precisely-evaluated doping parameters, is summarized. The principle characteristics of organic solar cells, namely, the exciton,
[...] Read more.
The concept of bandgap science of organic semiconductor films for use in photovoltaic cells, namely, high-purification, pn-control by doping, and design of the built-in potential based on precisely-evaluated doping parameters, is summarized. The principle characteristics of organic solar cells, namely, the exciton, donor (D)/acceptor (A) sensitization, and p-i-n cells containing co-deposited and D/A molecular blended i-interlayers, are explained. ‘Seven-nines’ (7N) purification, together with phase-separation/cystallization induced by co-evaporant 3rd molecules allowed us to fabricate 5.3% efficient cells based on 1 µm-thick fullerene:phthalocyanine (C60:H2Pc) co-deposited films. pn-control techniques enabled by impurity doping for both single and co-deposited films were established. The carrier concentrations created by doping were determined by the Kelvin band mapping technique. The relatively high ionization efficiency of 10% for doped organic semiconductors can be explained by the formation of charge transfer (CT)-complexes between the dopants and the organic semiconductor molecules. A series of fundamental junctions, such as Schottky junctions, pn-homojunctions, p+, n+-organic/metal ohmic junctions, and n+-organic/ p+-organic ohmic homojunctions, were fabricated in both single and co-deposited organic semiconductor films by impurity doping alone. A tandem cell showing 2.4% efficiency was fabricated in which the built-in electric field was designed by manipulating the doping. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Anomalous Response in Heteroacene-Based Organic Field Effect Transistors under High Pressure
Electronics 2014, 3(2), 255-265; doi:10.3390/electronics3020255
Received: 15 February 2014 / Revised: 28 March 2014 / Accepted: 31 March 2014 / Published: 10 April 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (693 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Carrier transport properties of organic field effect transistors in dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene single crystals have been investigated under high pressure. In contrast to the typical pressure effect of monotonic increase in charge transfer rates according to the application of
[...] Read more.
Carrier transport properties of organic field effect transistors in dinaphtho[2,3-b:2',3'-f]thieno[3,2-b]thiophene single crystals have been investigated under high pressure. In contrast to the typical pressure effect of monotonic increase in charge transfer rates according to the application of external hydrostatic pressure, it is clarified that the present organic semiconductor devices exhibit nonmonotonic pressure response, such as negative pressure effect. X-ray diffraction analysis under high pressure reveals that on-site molecular orientation and displacement in the heteroacene molecule is assumed to be the origin for the anomalous pressure effects. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Organic Thin-Film Transistor (OTFT)-Based Sensors
Electronics 2014, 3(2), 234-254; doi:10.3390/electronics3020234
Received: 23 January 2014 / Revised: 25 March 2014 / Accepted: 27 March 2014 / Published: 8 April 2014
Cited by 18 | PDF Full-text (827 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus
[...] Read more.
Organic thin film transistors have been a popular research topic in recent decades and have found applications from flexible displays to disposable sensors. In this review, we present an overview of some notable articles reporting sensing applications for organic transistors with a focus on the most recent publications. In particular, we concentrate on three main types of organic transistor-based sensors: biosensors, pressure sensors and “e-nose”/vapour sensors. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview The Effects of Different Electron-Phonon Couplings on the Spectral and Transport Properties of Small Molecule Single-Crystal Organic Semiconductors
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 165-189; doi:10.3390/electronics3010165
Received: 15 January 2014 / Revised: 3 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 2 | PDF Full-text (421 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Spectral and transport properties of small molecule single-crystal organic semiconductors have been theoretically analyzed focusing on oligoacenes, in particular on the series from naphthalene to rubrene and pentacene, aiming to show that the inclusion of different electron-phonon couplings is of paramount importance to
[...] Read more.
Spectral and transport properties of small molecule single-crystal organic semiconductors have been theoretically analyzed focusing on oligoacenes, in particular on the series from naphthalene to rubrene and pentacene, aiming to show that the inclusion of different electron-phonon couplings is of paramount importance to interpret accurately the properties of prototype organic semiconductors. While in the case of rubrene, the coupling between charge carriers and low frequency inter-molecular modes is sufficient for a satisfactory description of spectral and transport properties, the inclusion of electron coupling to both low-frequency inter-molecular and high-frequency intra-molecular vibrational modes is needed to account for the temperature dependence of transport properties in smaller oligoacenes. For rubrene, a very accurate analysis in the relevant experimental configuration has allowed for the clarification of the origin of the temperature-dependent mobility observed in these organic semiconductors. With increasing temperature, the chemical potential moves into the tail of the density of states corresponding to localized states, but this is not enough to drive the system into an insulating state. The mobility along different crystallographic directions has been calculated, including vertex corrections that give rise to a transport lifetime one order of magnitude smaller than the spectral lifetime of the states involved in the transport mechanism. The mobility always exhibits a power-law behavior as a function of temperature, in agreement with experiments in rubrene. In systems gated with polarizable dielectrics, the electron coupling to interface vibrational modes of the gate has to be included in addition to the intrinsic electron-phonon interaction. While the intrinsic bulk electron-phonon interaction affects the behavior of mobility in the coherent regime below room temperature, the coupling with interface modes is dominant for the activated high temperature contribution of localized polarons. Finally, the effects of a weak disorder largely increase the activation energies of mobility and induce the small polaron formation at lower values of electron-phonon couplings in the experimentally relevant temperature window. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Emerging Transparent Conducting Electrodes for Organic Light Emitting Diodes
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 190-204; doi:10.3390/electronics3010190
Received: 21 January 2014 / Revised: 1 March 2014 / Accepted: 12 March 2014 / Published: 21 March 2014
Cited by 11 | PDF Full-text (2674 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible
[...] Read more.
Organic light emitting diodes (OLEDs) have attracted much attention in recent years as next generation lighting and displays, due to their many advantages, including superb performance, mechanical flexibility, ease of fabrication, chemical versatility, etc. In order to fully realize the highly flexible features, reduce the cost and further improve the performance of OLED devices, replacing the conventional indium tin oxide with better alternative transparent conducting electrodes (TCEs) is a crucial step. In this review, we focus on the emerging alternative TCE materials for OLED applications, including carbon nanotubes (CNTs), metallic nanowires, conductive polymers and graphene. These materials are selected, because they have been applied as transparent electrodes for OLED devices and achieved reasonably good performance or even higher device performance than that of indium tin oxide (ITO) glass. Various electrode modification techniques and their effects on the device performance are presented. The effects of new TCEs on light extraction, device performance and reliability are discussed. Highly flexible, stretchable and efficient OLED devices are achieved based on these alternative TCEs. These results are summarized for each material. The advantages and current challenges of these TCE materials are also identified. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Open AccessReview Electron and Hole Transport Layers: Their Use in Inverted Bulk Heterojunction Polymer Solar Cells
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 132-164; doi:10.3390/electronics3010132
Received: 8 January 2014 / Revised: 19 February 2014 / Accepted: 24 February 2014 / Published: 6 March 2014
Cited by 24 | PDF Full-text (3458 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs) are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability
[...] Read more.
Bulk heterojunction polymer solar cells (BHJ PSCs) are very promising organic-based devices for low-cost solar energy conversion, compatible with roll-to-roll or general printing methods for mass production. Nevertheless, to date, many issues should still be addressed, one of these being the poor stability in ambient conditions. One elegant way to overcome such an issue is the so-called “inverted” BHJ PSC, a device geometry in which the charge collection is reverted in comparison with the standard geometry device, i.e., the electrons are collected by the bottom electrode and the holes by the top electrode (in contact with air). This reverted geometry allows one to use a high work function top metal electrode, like silver or gold (thus avoiding its fast oxidation and degradation), and eliminates the need of a polymeric hole transport layer, typically of an acidic nature, on top of the transparent metal oxide bottom electrode. Moreover, this geometry is fully compatible with standard roll-to-roll manufacturing in air and is less demanding for a good post-production encapsulation process. To date, the external power conversion efficiencies of the inverted devices are generally comparable to their standard analogues, once both the electron transport layer and the hole transport layer are fully optimized for the particular device. Here, the most recent results on this particular optimization process will be reviewed, and a general outlook regarding the inverted BHJ PSC will be depicted. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available
Figures

Open AccessReview Integration of Organic Light Emitting Diodes and Organic Photodetectors for Lab-on-a-Chip Bio-Detection Systems
Electronics 2014, 3(1), 43-75; doi:10.3390/electronics3010043
Received: 11 December 2013 / Revised: 15 January 2014 / Accepted: 27 January 2014 / Published: 13 February 2014
Cited by 8 | PDF Full-text (1089 KB) | HTML Full-text | XML Full-text
Abstract
The rapid development of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technologies have allowed for the efficient separation and manipulation of various biomaterials, including many diagnostically relevant species. Organic electronics have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research, resulting in tiny, highly efficient, wavelength-selective organic light-emitting
[...] Read more.
The rapid development of microfluidics and lab-on-a-chip (LoC) technologies have allowed for the efficient separation and manipulation of various biomaterials, including many diagnostically relevant species. Organic electronics have similarly enjoyed a great deal of research, resulting in tiny, highly efficient, wavelength-selective organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) and organic photodetectors (OPDs). We consider the blend of these technologies for rapid detection and diagnosis of biological species. In the ideal system, optically active or fluorescently labelled biological species can be probed via light emission from OLEDs, and their subsequent light emission can be detected with OPDs. The relatively low cost and simple fabrication of the organic electronic devices suggests the possibility of disposable test arrays. Further, with full integration, the finalized system can be miniaturized and made simple to use. In this review, we consider the design constraints of OLEDs and OPDs required to achieve fully organic electronic optical bio-detection systems. Current approaches to integrated LoC optical sensing are first discussed. Fully realized OLED- and OPD-specific photoluminescence detection systems from literature are then examined, with a specific focus on their ultimate limits of detection. The review highlights the enormous potential in OLEDs and OPDs for integrated optical sensing, and notes the key avenues of research for cheap and powerful LoC bio-detection systems. Full article
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Organic Semiconductors) Print Edition available

Planned Papers

The below list represents only planned manuscripts. Some of these manuscripts have not been received by the Editorial Office yet. Papers submitted to MDPI journals are subject to peer-review.


 

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