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Analysis of Dynamic Differential Swing Limited Logic for Low-Power Secure Applications
ICTEAM institute, Université catholique de Louvain, Place du Levant 3, Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium
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Received: 28 December 2011; in revised form: 2 March 2012 / Accepted: 2 March 2012 / Published: 16 March 2012
Abstract: Low-power secure applications such as Radio Frequency IDentification (RFID) and smart cards represent extremely constrained environments in terms of power consumption and die area. This paper investigates the power, delay and security performances of the dynamic differential swing limited logic (DDSLL). A complete analysis of an advanced encryption standard (AES) S-box is conducted using a low-power (LP) 65 nm CMOS technology node. Measurements show that the DDSLL S-box has 35% less power consumption than the static CMOS S-box, with an area increase of only 12%, at the expense of a 2.5× increase in delay which remains fairly acceptable for low-power applications such as RFIDs and smart cards. Also when compared to other dynamic differential logic (DDL) styles, simulation results show that DDSLL and dynamic current mode logic (DyCML) consume the same power which is about 1.8× less that of sense amplifier based logic (SABL). The effect of process variations is also studied, measurement results show that the DDSLL style has lower variability in terms of dynamic power as the activity factor (αF) is deterministic thanks to glitch-free operation. As for security, the perceived information metric demonstrates that the DDSLL S-box has a 3× security margin compared to static CMOS. Therefore, DDSLL presents an interesting tradeoff between improved security and area constrained low-power designs.
Keywords: low-power;WID; D2D; variability; AES; S-box; DDSLL; DDL
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Kamel, D.; Renauld, M.; Bol, D.; Standaert, F.-X.; Flandre, D. Analysis of Dynamic Differential Swing Limited Logic for Low-Power Secure Applications. J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2012, 2, 98-126.
Kamel D, Renauld M, Bol D, Standaert F-X, Flandre D. Analysis of Dynamic Differential Swing Limited Logic for Low-Power Secure Applications. Journal of Low Power Electronics and Applications. 2012; 2(1):98-126.
Kamel, Dina; Renauld, Mathieu; Bol, David; Standaert, François-Xavier; Flandre, Denis. 2012. "Analysis of Dynamic Differential Swing Limited Logic for Low-Power Secure Applications." J. Low Power Electron. Appl. 2, no. 1: 98-126.