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Biology 2015, 4(4), 814-859; doi:10.3390/biology4040814

Along the Axis between Type 1 and Type 2 Immunity; Principles Conserved in Evolution from Fish to Mammals

1
Laboratory of Fish Immunology, Institute of Infectology, Friedrich-Loeffler-Institut, Südufer 10, Greifswald-Insel Riems 17493, Germany
2
Department of Pathobiology, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, PA 19104, USA
3
Institute for Comprehensive Medical Science, Fujita Health University, Dengakugakubo 1-98, Toyoake, Aichi 470-1192, Japan
These authors contributed equally to this works.
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian Dixon
Received: 8 September 2015 / Revised: 10 October 2015 / Accepted: 19 October 2015 / Published: 17 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Abstract

A phenomenon already discovered more than 25 years ago is the possibility of naïve helper T cells to polarize into TH1 or TH2 populations. In a simplified model, these polarizations occur at opposite ends of an “immune 1-2 axis” (i1-i2 axis) of possible conditions. Additional polarizations of helper/regulatory T cells were discovered later, such as for example TH17 and Treg phenotypes; although these polarizations are not selected by the axis-end conditions, they are affected by i1-i2 axis factors, and may retain more potential for change than the relatively stable TH1 and TH2 phenotypes. I1-i2 axis conditions are also relevant for polarizations of other types of leukocytes, such as for example macrophages. Tissue milieus with “type 1 immunity” (“i1”) are biased towards cell-mediated cytotoxicity, while the term “type 2 immunity” (“i2”) is used for a variety of conditions which have in common that they inhibit type 1 immunity. The immune milieus of some tissues, like the gills in fish and the uterus in pregnant mammals, probably are skewed towards type 2 immunity. An i2-skewed milieu is also created by many tumors, which allows them to escape eradication by type 1 immunity. In this review we compare a number of i1-i2 axis factors between fish and mammals, and conclude that several principles of the i1-i2 axis system seem to be ancient and shared between all classes of jawed vertebrates. Furthermore, the present study is the first to identify a canonical TH2 cytokine locus in a bony fish, namely spotted gar, in the sense that it includes RAD50 and bona fide genes of both IL-4/13 and IL-3/ IL-5/GM-CSF families. View Full-Text
Keywords: immunology; evolution; fish; TH1; TH17; Treg; TH2; i1-i2 axis; cytokines; IL-5 immunology; evolution; fish; TH1; TH17; Treg; TH2; i1-i2 axis; cytokines; IL-5
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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MDPI and ACS Style

Yamaguchi, T.; Takizawa, F.; Fischer, U.; Dijkstra, J.M. Along the Axis between Type 1 and Type 2 Immunity; Principles Conserved in Evolution from Fish to Mammals. Biology 2015, 4, 814-859.

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