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Biology 2015, 4(4), 756-784; doi:10.3390/biology4040756

Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors

1
Biomedical Unit, School of Science, University of Waikato, Waikato 3240, New Zealand
2
Animal Health Research Center (CISA-INIA), Carretera de Algete a El Casar km. 8.1, Valdeolmos, Madrid 28130, Spain
*
Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Academic Editor: Brian Dixon
Received: 13 August 2015 / Revised: 20 October 2015 / Accepted: 3 November 2015 / Published: 11 November 2015
(This article belongs to the Special Issue Current Understanding of Fish Immune Systems)
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Abstract

Chemokines are a superfamily of cytokines that appeared about 650 million years ago, at the emergence of vertebrates, and are responsible for regulating cell migration under both inflammatory and physiological conditions. The first teleost chemokine gene was reported in rainbow trout in 1998. Since then, numerous chemokine genes have been identified in diverse fish species evidencing the great differences that exist among fish and mammalian chemokines, and within the different fish species, as a consequence of extensive intrachromosomal gene duplications and different infectious experiences. Subsequently, it has only been possible to establish clear homologies with mammalian chemokines in the case of some chemokines with well-conserved homeostatic roles, whereas the functionality of other chemokine genes will have to be independently addressed in each species. Despite this, functional studies have only been undertaken for a few of these chemokine genes. In this review, we describe the current state of knowledge of chemokine biology in teleost fish. We have mainly focused on those species for which more research efforts have been made in this subject, specially zebrafish (Danio rerio), rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss) and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus), outlining which genes have been identified thus far, highlighting the most important aspects of their expression regulation and addressing any known aspects of their biological role in immunity. Finally, we summarise what is known about the chemokine receptors in teleosts and provide some analysis using recently available data to help characterise them more clearly. View Full-Text
Keywords: fish; teleost; chemokines; ligands; receptors fish; teleost; chemokines; ligands; receptors
This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. (CC BY 4.0).

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Bird, S.; Tafalla, C. Teleost Chemokines and Their Receptors. Biology 2015, 4, 756-784.

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