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Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of CCR5 Transcription
Department of Immunohematology and Blood Transfusion, Leiden University Medical Center, Leiden, Albinusdreef 2, 2333 ZA, Leiden, The Netherlands
Department of Pathology, VU University Medical Center, De Boelelaan 1117, 1081 HV Amsterdam, The Netherlands
* Author to whom correspondence should be addressed.
Received: 7 October 2012; in revised form: 27 November 2012 / Accepted: 3 December 2012 / Published: 13 December 2012
Abstract: The chemokine receptor CCR5 regulates trafficking of immune cells of the lymphoid and the myeloid lineage (such as monocytes, macrophages and immature dendritic cells) and microglia. Because of this, there is an increasing recognition of the important role of CCR5 in the pathology of (neuro-) inflammatory diseases such as atherosclerosis and multiple sclerosis. Expression of CCR5 is under the control of a complexly organized promoter region upstream of the gene. The transcription factor cAMP-responsive element binding protein 1 (CREB-1) transactivates the CCR5 P1 promoter. The cell-specific expression of CCR5 however is realized by using various epigenetic marks providing a multivalent chromatin state particularly in monocytes. Here we discuss the transcriptional regulation of CCR5 with a focus on the epigenetic peculiarities of CCR5 transcription.
Keywords: transcription regulation; CCR5; epigenetics; DNA methylation; multivalent chromatin
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Wierda, R.J.; van den Elsen, P.J. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of CCR5 Transcription. Biology 2012, 1, 869-879.
Wierda RJ, van den Elsen PJ. Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of CCR5 Transcription. Biology. 2012; 1(3):869-879.
Wierda, Rutger J.; van den Elsen, Peter J. 2012. "Genetic and Epigenetic Regulation of CCR5 Transcription." Biology 1, no. 3: 869-879.